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|2||South Tangerang, Banten|
|3||Surabaya, East Java|
|5||Palembang, South Sumatra|
|7||Bandung, West Java|
|8||Semarang, Central Java|
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Unhealthy for sensitive groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for sensitive groups|| 130* US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Depok is currently 9.5 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Monday, Dec 4|
Unhealthy for sensitive groups 130 AQI US
Unhealthy for sensitive groups 130 AQI US
|Wednesday, Dec 6|
Unhealthy for sensitive groups 119 AQI US
|Thursday, Dec 7|
Unhealthy for sensitive groups 118 AQI US
|Friday, Dec 8|
Moderate 79 AQI US
|Saturday, Dec 9|
Moderate 76 AQI US
|Sunday, Dec 10|
Moderate 68 AQI US
|Monday, Dec 11|
Moderate 65 AQI US
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Depok is part of the Jakarta metropolitan area in West Java, Indonesia. A survey conducted in 2018 revealed it has a population of 2.3 million people. Towards the end of 2020, the air quality index (AQI) was 17 US AQI, with PM2.5 being the main pollutant with average levels of 4.1 µg/m³. The PM2.5 is so-called because the 2.5 refers to the diameter of the particulate matter. This diameter measures 2.4 microns and is approximately 30 times smaller than a strand of human hair. It can provoke serious health problems which is why it is often used when calculating the air quality index.
The main source of air pollution is vehicle emissions. There are millions of vehicles registered in Depok and many are in daily use. Unfortunately, a lot of these vehicles are old and therefore lack the modern devices installed on newer models to help control their emissions. Some modern cars and motorbikes automatically switch off the engine if no forward motion is detected within a few seconds. Idling vehicles make a huge difference to the air quality surrounding congested junctions. This is seen to be the case when monitoring stations capture the evidence as they record the data.
Public transport is gradually being replaced by vehicles that are either powered by electricity or designed to operate on condensed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied propane gas (LPG). Although the latter still gives off carbon dioxide (CO2), they emit virtually no black carbon (BC) or soot.
Research is currently being conducted to determine the quality of air in a school environment. A student will spend on average, between 6 to 8 hours each day in classrooms. Indoor air quality can be linked to several respiratory diseases for which children can be particularly vulnerable. One reason for this is that they are still growing and their organs are not yet fully grown.
This research measured air quality and recorded levels of the following pollutants PM2.5, PM10, carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in three junior high schools and produced a health risk assessment based on their findings. It was noticed that levels of PM2.5 were in excess of the stipulated standard in all three of the chosen schools. Pm10 levels were exceeded in two of the same three schools. Levels of carbon dioxide and formaldehyde were found to be at a safe level and therefore no real threat to health.
It is now intended to control the exposure at a safe threshold of PM2.5 0.035µg/m³; 0.043 µg/m³and PM10 0.144 µg/m³for most of the population at normal school time. Most schools are situated in central areas and often surrounded by a comprehensive road network. This is the main source of their polluted air.
The level of air pollution in Depok has shocked a group of regular pedestrians, who quoted data from an air quality monitoring service which showed that the city was subject to unhealthy air. The city administration refuted this claim and the Depok Environment agency presented different data to argue that the air could still be categorized as “safe”. The Pedestrian Coalition (KPK) posted on their official social media site that said the air quality in Depok reached “unhealthy” levels on the evening of July 16th as measured by the Air Quality Index (AQI). The data, which was posted by the coalition on July 17th, showed that the level of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter believed to be hazardous to human health) in Depok reached a United States AQI rating of 170.
At such levels, it is recommended to avoid outdoor activities or wear masks when outside. In response to the findings, the Depok Environment Agency presented different data and questioned the accuracy of the data posted by the pedestrian coalition. A spokesperson for the agency’s environment control, pollution and arrangement division, referred to the air pollution standard index (ISPU) and said Depok recorded a figure of 11, which was categorized as "safe". Air quality at this level does not affect the health of humans and animals. They went on to explain that air pollution in Depok is mainly caused by pollutants emitted from vehicles and industries. The local authority regularly measures the level of pollutants from industries and officials frequently evaluate and reprimand the polluters, if necessary. But the case is different with vehicles because the level of pollution cannot be accurately predicted. There are just too many variables to take into consideration.
The Jakarta Environmental Agency's Environmental Agency's Air Quality Monitoring Station (SPKU) is located at the HI Roundabout, showing that air quality is in the moderate category on Saturday afternoon, 6th July 2019.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests provides help to monitor air quality in and around Depok. New ground-level monitoring equipment was given to the Depok City Environment and Sanitation Service was installed towards the end of 2019. This will greatly assist with the control of the pollutants.
A spokesperson for the Department for Pollution and Environmental Arrangement Division of the Depok City DLHK Environment Agency said the air pollution level detector is located in the Depok Mayor's Office Complex.
It was quoted in 2019 that "This AQMS tool can measure air quality up to a radius of 5 kilometres".
The AQMS panel is placed in the Depok Mayor's Office because the device can function in open areas. It was explained that the maintenance costs are still the responsibility of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. "An AQMS LED panel will be installed on Jalan Raya Margonda to be precise at Jalan Juanda intersection." This panel will communicate the quality of the air in real-time. The public can then make an informed decision as to what to do about it. This means that the quality of air will be seen every day whether in the good or bad category.