|2||Depok, West Java|
|4||Surabaya, East Java|
|5||Malang, East Java|
|6||Medan, North Sumatra|
|8||Bandung, West Java|
|9||Pangkalan Balai, South Sumatra|
|10||Palembang, South Sumatra|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 86 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 28.8 µg/m³|
|PM10|| 31 µg/m³|
|O3|| 9.3 µg/m³|
|Close your windows to avoid dirty outdoor air|
|Sensitive groups should reduce outdoor exercise|
|Sunday, Jun 13|
Moderate 91 US AQI
|Monday, Jun 14|
Moderate 95 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jun 15|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 116 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 108 US AQI
|Thursday, Jun 17|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 133 US AQI
|Friday, Jun 18|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 112 US AQI
|Saturday, Jun 19|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 118 US AQI
|Sunday, Jun 20|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 150 US AQI
|Monday, Jun 21|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 112 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jun 22|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 113 US AQI
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Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and the fourth-largest city in Indonesia. It is 140 kilometres south east of Jakarta and had a metropolitan population of over 8 million residents in 2020. It is 768 metres above sea level and is surrounded by volcanic peaks that provide a natural defence system.
Towards the middle of 2021, Bandung was experiencing a period of “Moderate” air quality with a US AQI reading of 83. This United States Air Quality Index figure is a classification system that is globally used and recognised and, as such, it is used to compare different cities in different countries by using the same metrics, and is endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). There are usually six main pollutants that are taken into consideration when assessing air quality. Sometimes figures for all six are not available so the level has to be calculated by using what data is available. When calculating the level in Bandung the following measurements were used: PM2.5 - 27.1 µg/m³, PM10 - 30.2 µg/m³ and ozone (O3) - 4.4 µg/m³. With elevated levels such as these, it is highly recommended to stay indoors and close all doors and windows to prevent more polluted air from entering the room. Those with a sensitive disposition should refrain from going out until the air quality improves. A good quality mask should be worn when venturing outside although prolonged periods of outdoor activity are not recommended until the air quality gets noticeably better. The table at the top of this page will assist you with this decision.
Air pollution is affected by many variable factors such as temperature, wind speed and direction and the level and strength of sunlight, so it can and does change very quickly, depending on prevailing conditions.
The figures for 2020 have been published by the Swiss air monitoring company, IQAir.com and it can be seen that the best quality air was enjoyed during the spring and autumn months. During February, March and May the figures fell between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³, putting it into the “Moderate” air quality bracket. This happened again during September, October and November with respective figures of 32.3, 29.1 and 28.6 µg/m³. The best air quality was during December when the quality was “Good” with a figure of just 10.8 µg/m³. The remaining months of January, April, June, July and August saw the quality worsen with figures between 35.5 and 55.4 µg/m³ which placed Bandung in the “Unhealthy for sensitive groups” category.
There were no records kept of the air quality before 2020 when the average annual figure was 33.2 µg/m³. This figure may well be artificially lower than usual due to the restrictions put into force due to the COVID-19 pandemic. During this time, many private vehicles were not used as the drivers were allowed to work remotely from home. Some factories and other production units were temporarily closed which had the effect of lowering air pollution. Once industry returns to normal after COVID, it will be interesting to see if this figure increases and the air quality deteriorates again.
Industrial development, coupled with an expanding population, has increased the amount of environmental damage in Indonesia. In parts of Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung, for example, the air pollution concentration levels for suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and lead (Pb) are far above the allowable World Health Organisation (WHO) standards for air quality.
Some of the main sources of air pollution are transportation, industry, household and the burning of crop residue at certain times of the year.
The goal to reduce air pollution is to start with the reduction of mobile emissions. The lead content of gasoline needs to be further reduced by a further 10 per cent. But the price difference between leaded and unleaded needs parity because its human nature to buy the cheapest suitable product.
The government plans to implement a very strict emission standard for new vehicles. With the new standard, most likely new vehicles will need to be fitted with catalytic converters. This policy aims to limit the increase in air pollution levels as vehicle numbers rise. They also intend to establish a Roadside Inspection Program. This policy will be designed to control air pollutants from vehicles in use. It is suspected that the worst 10 per cent of polluting vehicles generate about half of total pollution (World Bank 1993). To implement this policy, the government plans to build vehicle emission testing centres in several large cities. An emission standard for existing vehicles will also be introduced.
Two-Stroke Engines are to be phased out as soon as possible. The reason for phasing them out is that they generate approximately 40 per cent more pollution than four-stroke engines of the same size. Currently, approximately 50 per cent of motorcycles in Indonesia have two-stroke engines. These engines contribute approximately 20 per cent of the suspended particulate matter SPM, nitrogen dioxide, and lead pollutants in the air.
The second component of the BSP (Blue Sky Program) will attempt to control air pollution from stationary sources such as factories and open burning municipal wastes. This program is still in its very preliminary planning stages, and no detailed studies have yet been conducted to estimate the investment costs of the different components of this program.
Some of the most common types of air pollution are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3).
Long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure (hypertension).
Adults in the same age group who live in areas with high levels of pollution are more prone to developing high blood pressure than those who live in areas with minimal pollution.
For every five micrograms per cubic meter (5 µg/m³) of PM2.5 the risk of hypertension increases by 22 per cent in people living in highly polluted areas compared to those living in less polluted areas.
Short-term exposure to exhaust gases sulphur dioxide and particulates such as dust is associated with a risk of high blood pressure. Meanwhile, in the long term, nitrogen dioxide pollutants from vehicles can have the same effect.