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|7||Kotsyubyns'ke, Kyiv City|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
|1||Mykoly Shepeljeva Street|
|2||Hotkevycha 22, Kyiv, Ecology Center|
|3||Pereyaslavska St, 1B|
|5||Velyka Vasylkivska St, 131|
|6||Reheneratorna St, 4|
|7||Horlivska St, 38|
|9||Residential complex Kakhovskaya|
|10||Almatynska St, 41А|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 74 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Kyiv is currently 4.6 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Saturday, Dec 2|
Moderate 61 AQI US
|Sunday, Dec 3|
Good 39 AQI US
|Monday, Dec 4|
Good 48 AQI US
Moderate 74 AQI US
|Wednesday, Dec 6|
Good 43 AQI US
|Thursday, Dec 7|
Good 25 AQI US
|Friday, Dec 8|
Good 15 AQI US
|Saturday, Dec 9|
Good 9 AQI US
|Sunday, Dec 10|
Good 10 AQI US
|Monday, Dec 11|
Good 48 AQI US
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Kyiv or Kiev is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is situated in north-central Ukraine along the banks of the Dnieper River. Its estimated population in July 2015 was 3 million (though higher numbers have been cited in the press), making Kyiv the seventh-most populous city in Europe.
In early 2021, Kyiv was experiencing “Moderate” quality air with a US AQI reading of 79 according to suggested levels by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The concentration of PM2.5 was recorded as 13.2 µg/m³. With levels such as these, the advice is to close doors and windows to prevent the ingress of dirty air. Those of a sensitive disposition should avoid going outdoors unless absolutely necessary.
Historically, one of the main sources of air pollution was from the Darnytska CHP, Energia plant. But now having succumbed to pressure and due to the consciousness of owners, environmental measures have been carried out by means of the installation of an extensive filtration system.
In 2015, the main source of 85 per cent of air pollutant emissions in Kyiv was from vehicles. The remaining 15 per cent comes from industrial enterprises, peatland fires, forest fires, and bonfires.
Cars also produce a significant share of emissions of the largest pollutants, in particular, 57 per cent of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 95 per cent of carbon monoxide (CO).
Concentrations of some pollutants in the air exceeded the maximum allowable levels. In 2016, the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and nitric oxide were constantly exceeded and periodically concentrations of suspended solids, carbon monoxide and phenol were higher than the permitted amount. The level of pollution depended on the location and meteorological conditions.
According to statistics, 1.25 million cars are registered in Kyiv. And this figure increases by approximately 170,000 cars annually. The average age of these cars is 16 years. For comparison, the average age of cars in Europe is about 8.5 years and in the United States, it is 9.2 years.
As is the case with so many other countries, Ukrainian farmers burn organic waste as a time and labour saving way to prepare the ground for future crops. Not only does this destroy the weeds that have been growing, but it also returns nutrients to the ground as a result of the ash that is created. The side effect though is the creation of large amounts of polluted smoke which can be blown anywhere.
During the months of June, July and August in 2019, Kyiv achieved the target figure set down by the World Health Organisation of less than 10 µg/m³. In May, it was slightly worse when it recorded levels between 10 and 12 µg/m³. For the remaining 8 months, its air quality was classed as “Moderate” with figures between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³.
Unfortunately, the overall figure is worsening. In 2017 it was below the target with 9.8 µg/m³. In the following year, it became worse with a figure of 13.8 µg/m³ and 2019 saw it slip again with that annual figure of 16.6 µg/m³.
During April 2020, there were a number of fires which had been lit around the now-defunct Chernobyl nuclear plant. The initial ones were soon extinguished but due to strong winds, several others started. It was thought the initial fires were started by arsonists. Local authorities have assured residents that there is absolutely no radiological threat from the smoke and the background radiation in the area is both normal and at an acceptable level. Citizens were encouraged to stay inside because of the smog, but this had already been advised due to the COVID-19 restrictions.
In general, in Kyiv, systematic observations of the content of harmful substances in the air are carried out at 16 stationary posts with a sampling frequency of 6 days a week, 3-4 times a day. Determine 20 contaminants such as dust, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride and others.
The current monitoring system needs to be expanded and updated, because the Sreznevsky Observatory, which was established in the 1960s, has not been updated all this time and cannot show data every hour. And cannot capture all harmful substances.
There is an ambitious plan to build about 70 ground-level monitoring stations. There should be at least 180 of them in Ukraine to effectively monitor and have objective information on the state of the air in all regions. Only after that, it will be possible to say exactly what the real situation is with air quality not only in Kyiv but in Ukraine in general.
The first two stationary air monitoring stations will be installed in Darnytskyi and Dniprovskyi districts. It is no coincidence that the work on the installation of the air monitoring system was started from the left bank of the city. It is here that there are no posts of state air monitoring, located industrial enterprises and there is a problem of complete lack of objective data on air pollution.
In July 2018, the Kyiv City Council supported a draft of amendments to the Comprehensive City Target Program for the Environmental Welfare of the City of Kyiv for 2019-2021. The program provides funds for the creation of a city system of software and hardware for collecting and processing data on the state of the environment in Kyiv. This system will also monitor air quality.
The highest concentration of pollutants occurs in summer and autumn when the weather is hot, windless or foggy. Then the emissions do not dissipate but are concentrated in the lower layer and people breathe it in.
The main reason for the thick fog, which can often be observed in autumn is temperature inversion. This phenomenon is common for the autumn season and occurs when the upper atmosphere is quite warm and the surface layer is cold. Vertical air circulation slows down and all the products of the city cannot rise to the upper atmosphere and disperse. Nevertheless, such smog does not significantly affect air pollution.