|1||Ubon Ratchathani, Changwat Ubon Ratchathani|
|2||Bang Bua Thong, Nonthaburi|
|3||Bang Yai, Nonthaburi|
|4||Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Pathom|
|5||Pak Kret, Nonthaburi|
|6||Saraburi, Sara Buri|
|7||Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani|
|8||Sai Mai, Bangkok|
|9||Mueang Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi|
|10||Ayutthaya, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Good|| 38 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 9.1 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in San Kamphaeng air is currently 0 times above the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Open your windows to bring clean, fresh air indoors|
|Enjoy outdoor activities|
Good 38 US AQI
|Monday, Sep 20|
Moderate 52 US AQI
|Tuesday, Sep 21|
Moderate 68 US AQI
|Wednesday, Sep 22|
Moderate 72 US AQI
|Thursday, Sep 23|
Moderate 60 US AQI
|Friday, Sep 24|
Moderate 82 US AQI
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San Kamphaeng is located in Chiang Mai, in the northern region of Thailand. Looking at the levels of air pollution recorded in mid-2021, it can be seen that San Kamphaeng had some less than perfect levels of air quality. In May of 2021, San Kamphaeng presented with a US AQI reading of 106, a fairly high number that placed it into the ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ bracket rating, which as the name indicates is of particular detriment to more at-risk groups in the population.
US AQI is a composite reading comprised of the main pollutants typically found at the air, which will be discussed in further detail at the end of the article. Observing the US AQI readings taken in the days and months prior to this (April and May of 2021), it can be seen that there were lows of 23 and 48, both of which would fall into the ‘good’ air quality ratings bracket, indicating that the air would be free from the large clouds of particulate matter, smoke, haze and other air contaminants that are present on more highly polluted days.
However, other high readings that came in over these two months were ones such as 154, which presented itself in late April. This is a reading that would be classed as ‘unhealthy’, meaning that all portions of the population would be at risk from the possible adverse effects that pollution can bring. With a wide range of US AQI readings, San Kamphaeng seems to be subject to some rather sporadic levels of air pollution, which can range from the good all the way up to unhealthy, as well as the time of year dictating how bad the pollution spikes will be.
These levels of air pollution can be monitored via the air quality maps present on the IQAir website, such as the one on the top of this page. They can also be followed closely on the AirVisual app, which comes with hourly updates that can inform individuals as to when to take preventative measures to keep themselves safe from higher levels of pollution.
The main reasons behind the high levels of air pollution present are ones such as vehicular fumes and exhaust, along with factories, power plants and other similar industrial areas contributing with their own emissions.
The fires in the northern region used to clear vast swathes of forest or farmland, typically started by farmers, rank amongst one of the worst offenders in the poor levels of air quality seen in norther Thailand. Smoke from fires started in neighboring countries can also drift across the borders, causing the US AQI and PM2.5 levels to skyrocket during certain times of the year.
Observing the levels of PM2.5 taken over 2020, it can be seen that the beginning of the year had some severe levels of pollution present. The months of January through to April had extremely high PM2.5 readings, coming in at 56.7 μg/m³, 63.5 μg/m³, 90.4 μg/m³ and 63.1 μg/m³. All of these fell within the ‘unhealthy’ ratings bracket (55.5 to 150.4 μg/m³ required), with March being the most heavily polluted with its reading of 90.4 μg/m³.
Some adverse health effects that may appear during bouts of high pollution would be ones such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an umbrella term that includes within it a variety or respiratory ailments such as bronchitis, asthma, emphysema and pneumonia. The inhalation of hazardous particulate matter, particularly the smaller and more dangerous PM2.5 variety, can over time present issues such as scarring of the lungs along with chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract and lung tissue itself.
These can both reduce full lung function, as well as make individuals who are affected more vulnerable to the above mentioned afflictions. Other conditions include aggravation of the mucous membranes (such as the mouth, eyes and nose), along with irritation to the skin which can result in a number of conditions ranging from acne and atopic dermatitis, all the way over the cases of skin cancer. Rates of lung cancer can also increase, along with other serious medical issues such as higher risk of heart attacks, stroke, arrythmias and impairment or damage to the nervous system.
As mentioned before, the reading of US AQI takes into consideration some of the main pollutants that are typically found in the air in cities around the world, regardless of geographical location. Although other types of pollution can differ dramatically due to rules, regulations as well as ingrained practices (such as the many brick kilns of Bangladesh, or poorly monitored factories in other parts of the world, pouring out far more novel pollutants than would usually be seen in other countries where air quality regulations are far more stringent), there remains an ever present set of main pollutants.
These main ones are nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), various oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which can go into forming many other secondary pollutants such as the previously mentioned nitrogen dioxide, as well as ozone (O3). Ozone is typically formed when these various oxides of nitrogen are exposed to high levels of sunlight, as well as various other gases or pollutants also undergoing the same chemical reaction to form ozone, or smog as it more commonly known as when it accumulates in large amounts. It can be seen blanketing certain cities throughout the world, and can cause a variety of health issues when it resides on ground level, despite being an integral part of the upper atmosphere.
Other pollutants include ones such as finely ground silica particles, along with dust, gravel and sand, all of which can reach insidiously small sizes that fit into the PM2.5 category, causing all manner of health issues when inhaled due to their incredibly small size (which allows them to cross into the bloodstream via the air sacs, or alveoli in the lungs, from there on wreaking havoc in the furthest reaches of the body).
Black carbon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also a part of the pollution collective, both of which can be formed from the incomplete combustion of both fossil fuels and organic materials, and as such can find their origin from car engines, factory boilers and even the burning of firewood and charcoal. Some examples of VOCs include chemicals such as styrene, formaldehyde and benzene, all of which are highly dangerous and can maintain their gaseous form at lower temperatures, increasing the likelihood that they will be inhaled and thus of greater danger to people’s health.