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|1||Bang Kruai, Nonthaburi|
|2||Thawi Watthana, Bangkok|
|3||Ayutthaya, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya|
|4||Bangkok Yai, Bangkok|
|5||Mueang Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi|
|6||Pak Kret, Nonthaburi|
|7||Phaya Thai, Bangkok|
|9||Khlong Toei, Bangkok|
|10||Bang Bon, Bangkok|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
8:32, Nov 28
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 83 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Pathum Wan is currently 5.5 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Saturday, Nov 25|
Moderate 68 AQI US
|Sunday, Nov 26|
Moderate 70 AQI US
|Monday, Nov 27|
Moderate 54 AQI US
Moderate 83 AQI US
|Wednesday, Nov 29|
Moderate 97 AQI US
|Thursday, Nov 30|
Moderate 85 AQI US
|Friday, Dec 1|
Moderate 59 AQI US
|Saturday, Dec 2|
Moderate 59 AQI US
|Sunday, Dec 3|
Moderate 64 AQI US
|Monday, Dec 4|
Moderate 60 AQI US
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As of March 2022, Pathum Wan is seeing large accumulations of air pollution as presented in its US AQI and PM2.5 readings, with 'moderate' to 'unhealthy' levels of air pollution present from January through to early March. Pollution levels were also high in the latter months of 2021, for reasons that will be touched upon further in the following question. Some US AQI readings on record in early March include figures of 154, placing Pathum Wan into the 'unhealthy' air quality rating bracket, color-coded as red and indicating a dangerous level of smoke, haze and fine particles in the air, which can cause many health issues to arise amongst the general population, with even healthy individuals starting to display signs of respiratory irritation or even the development of more serious illnesses, depending on the level of pollution exposure. The PM2.5 level at the time the above-mentioned US AQI reading was taken was found to be at a concentration of 61.5 µg/m³, 12.3 times higher than the World Health Organization's (WHO's) safe exposure guidelines. As such, the air in Pathum Wan is indeed displaying high levels of pollution, and safety protocols should be followed to reduce potential adverse health effects.
Observing the air pollution patterns that take place throughout the whole of Thailand, year after year, it is more than likely (although not without potential deviations) that Pathum Wan will be subject to the highest levels of air pollution at the same time that many other cities, towns and provinces in Thailand also see them, with larger amounts of smoke, haze and hazardous ultrafine particles permeating the air to a more dangerous extent during such months. Due to being part of the greater Bangkok region, however, Pathum Wan will also see much larger contributions to its pollution levels from anthropogenic and industrial activity, when compared to areas in the northern or central regions of Thailand. These northern regions tend to be affected more gravely by pollution from open burn sites, although Bangkok can still be subject to rapid pollution buildups and spikes due to smoke being blown over it during certain times of the year.
Due to the countrywide issue of slash and burn farming practices, many of the air pollution readings throughout Thailand tend to follow the seasonal burning, with some cities in closer proximity to these practices following them almost directly, with higher pollution levels appearing as soon as the burning starts to take place, and abating around the time that it comes to an end, although residual clouds of smoke and haze can cause prolonged elevations in the US AQI and PM2.5 (and PM10) count. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions such as a lack of rain (which aids in removing some of the larger particles from the air by tamping them down, but has shown to not have a significant effect on ultrafine particles and any polluting gases that may be in the air) as well as lack of wind also playing a role in how long the pollution levels stay elevated.
This remains true for pollution caused both by open burning as well as the myriad of other polluting sources. Wind remains as one of the most effective removers of air pollutants, with strong winds rapidly removing large amounts of hazardous accumulations (albeit not removing it entirely as they can be blown over to nearby towns and cities, although the overall dispersal of gases and particles can serve to lessen their ill effects). With all these facts noted, as well as the pertinent point of deviations from the norm always being possible (another case as to why pollution levels should be carefully monitored, with forecasts being available both on this page as well as the AirVisual app), it remains that Pathum Wan and indeed many areas throughout Thailand tend to see heightened levels of pollution crop up in the latter portion of the year, typically starting around September through to October, and going through to the next months of the following year, with some of these early months seeing the highest air pollution levels (once again this is based on a large number of readings taken from many cities, as an average). Air pollution levels start to recede around March or April and can give way to the middle months of the year seeing the best (or in some cases mildly improved, still lacking perfectly clean air) readings of US AQI and PM2.5, making the beginning and end months of the year the time in which Pathum Wan is most likely to be polluted.
Some more prominent pollutants that can be found in areas around Pathum Wan as well as throughout the rest of Thailand include ones that mainly stem from a large number of combustion sources present. Open burn fires, combustion from vehicle engines as well as boilers in factories and other similar industrial sites are counted amongst some of the more prominent causes of polluted air in Pathum Wan. Whilst the aforementioned open burn fires, or slash and burn farming as it is more commonly referred to, are of much greater concern areas that have a higher concentration of farmland, they can still be found throughout the whole country and certainly within Pathum Wan, with large amounts of pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and black carbon being found in the atmosphere, along with other pollutants that go into calculating the US AQI aggregate.
The chemicals used to calculate this US AQI figure include nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, as well as the two main forms of particle pollution, PM2.5 and PM10. Of these two, the smaller PM2.5 is well known as the far more dangerous, due to its minute size of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter allowing it to bypass the bodies defense systems and lodge deep within the tissue of the lungs (with more on this being discussed in the following health issues question). PM2.5 and some forms of PM10 can consist of materials such as water droplets and vapor, along with a variety of other liquids that can be aerosolized. Other materials include mold and fungal spores, bacteria, metals, nitrates and sulfates, along with finely ground silica dust, which can have a carcinogenic effect when inhaled. Some examples of the aforementioned VOCs include chemical compounds such as benzene, styrene, methylene chloride, toluene, xylene and formaldehyde. Their volatile nature allows them to maintain a gaseous state at much lower temperatures, thus making them considerably easier to breathe, and would be found prevalently around inhabited areas of Pathum Wan, due to their release from everything from fires, cars, factories as well as even from household items. VOCs are one of the main sources of indoor air pollution and can emanate from products such as glue, paint, varnish, as well as aerosols such as deodorant, scented candles and other toiletries. These are some of the more prevalent air pollutants that may be found around Pathum Wan, with certain areas such as busy roads and intersections that see a high level of rush hour traffic having higher concentrations of pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone and black carbon. Extra care should be taken around such areas, and wearing fine particle filtering masks can aid greatly in the reduction of hazardous material inhalation.
Breathing polluted air in Pathum Wan can have a number of ill health effects, particularly amongst more vulnerable members of the population, which includes the elderly, pregnant women, babies and young children, as well as the immunocompromised or those with pre-existing health conditions. Further health issues that may appear as a result of breathing high levels of smoke and particle-filled air include coughs, irritation to the mucosal tissues of the body such as the eyes, ears, nose and throat, along with potential infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ailments can also present themselves, with bronchitis, asthma and emphysema all falling under the COPD bracket.
Causes of air pollution within Pathum Wan stem mainly from exhaust fumes given out by cars, particles released from construction (and even demolition) sites, along with the burning of fossil fuels in the many industrial sites and factories surrounding Pathum Wan in the greater Bangkok region. As touched on earlier, there is the potential for pollution to reach Pathum Wan from open burn sites in the more northern regions of the country. All of these factors can come together to form the higher levels of US AQI and PM2.5 seen on record.
4 Data sources