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|1||Zemun, Central serb|
|2||Vracar, Central serb|
|3||Pancevo, Central Serbia|
|4||Cacak, Central Serbia|
|5||Cukarica, Central serb|
|6||Belgrade, Central Serbia|
|7||Zvezdara, Central serb|
|8||Kragujevac, Central Serbia|
|9||Nis, Central Serbia|
|10||Novi Sad, Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 54 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Cacak is currently 2.7 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Saturday, Sep 30|
Moderate 55 AQI US
|Sunday, Oct 1|
Moderate 64 AQI US
|Monday, Oct 2|
Moderate 52 AQI US
Moderate 54 AQI US
|Wednesday, Oct 4|
Good 48 AQI US
|Thursday, Oct 5|
Good 46 AQI US
|Friday, Oct 6|
Moderate 54 AQI US
|Saturday, Oct 7|
Moderate 57 AQI US
|Sunday, Oct 8|
Moderate 57 AQI US
|Monday, Oct 9|
Good 48 AQI US
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Cacak is a city and the administrative centre of the Moravica District in central Serbia. According to a census conducted in 2011, Cacak had an estimated population of 73,332 inhabitants in the city itself. The administrative area was populated by 115,337 people. It is primarily known as a Spa town and is 144 kilometres south of the capital, Belgrade.
Towards the middle of 2021, Cacak was enjoying a period of “Good” quality air with a US AQI reading of just 35. This United States Air Quality Index figure is a globally recognised system throughout the world and, as such, it is used to compare different cities in different countries but by using the same metrics, and is endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). There are usually six main pollutants that are taken into consideration when assessing air quality. Sometimes numbers for all six common pollutants are not available so the figure has to be calculated by using what data is available. For Cacak, only three figures were available which were as follows: PM2.5 - 8.5 µg/m³, PM10 - 31.5 µg/m³ and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - 12.7 µg/m³. With air quality as good as this, you can open doors and windows to let the fresh air into your home and all types of outdoor exercise can be enjoyed without fear.
Air pollution is affected by many variables and can therefore change very quickly depending on the speed and direction of the wind or the hours and strength of sunlight.
Looking back at the published figures for 2020 from the Swiss air monitoring company, IQAir.com, it can be seen that for June and September, Cacak achieved the World Health Organisation target figure of being less than 10 µg/m³. For July and August, the air quality was “Good” with readings between 10 and 12 µg/m³. April, May and October brought “Moderate” quality air with figures between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. The colder months of November and December brought “Unhealthy” air with readings between 55.5 and 150.4 µg/m³. Unfortunately, there were no records for January and February. The only annual average figure available was for 2020 when it was 30.3 µg/m³. This last figure may not be a truly accurate reading because of the restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many vehicles were no longer used as the drivers were not required to travel to and from work. There were also many factories and other non-essential production units which were temporarily closed in an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus.
There are no extremely large sources of air pollution on the territory of Cacak, such as large industrial complexes, quarries, etc. The main sources of pollution are: intensive local and transit road traffic and thermal energy production plants.
The administrative territory of Cacak includes a valley that extends to about 200 m above sea level and the hills and mountains that surround it up to 900 m above sea level. The problem of air pollution is noticeable in the altitude zone below 300 m above sea level due to the very low intensity of natural airflow, so that part of the territory is occasionally exposed to increased concentrations of pollutants.
The public that they are ready to deal with air pollution, which is especially pronounced during the winter months, mostly due to numerous individual fireplace/boilers in suburban settlements which are used to provide heat for the home during the colder months.
The most important thing is that thermal power plants, which are the biggest polluters, reduce emissions with the modernisation of equipment.
Long-term measures are the best solution to this decades-old problem. In the first place, pollution will be reduced through the process of gasification of suburban settlements and extinguishing of individual fireplaces. In addition, in order to move all heavy freight and transit traffic from the city centre and thus reduce exhaust gases a new traffic control system needs to be introduced.
One of the main problems in terms of air quality, climate change and energy is the high consumption of fossil fuels, the combustion of which pollutes the air and emits carbon dioxide, which is the main cause of climate change. In this regard, one of the main challenges is the process of decarbonisation, i.e. the transition from the use of fossil fuels to alternative energy sources, and we are thinking predominantly of solar energy and wind energy.
It is a special challenge to introduce mechanisms that will reduce the emission of pollutants from home fireplaces, given the economic situation and the fact that home fireplaces have the greatest impact on air pollution in many environments. Solutions such as energy efficiency of buildings, district heating and the use of heat pumps or natural gas are known, but the challenge is mass energy efficiency with subsidies, and make other solutions more cost-effective for citizens.
Connecting households to a district heating system would certainly lead to a reduction in the concentration of soot in the air and a reduction in the number of individual fireplaces.
Polluted air has a very unfavourable effect on the entire population of these centres, and especially on those residents who have health problems and problems (cardiac, pulmonary, neurological, etc.). The impact of small particles on human health is especially negative.
According to a report by the World Bank office in Sarajevo, polluted air in most cities causes the premature death of more than 3,000 people a year.
Air pollution can affect the respiratory system (acute irritation and inflammation, chronic inflammation, carcinogenesis, inducing immune response-especially sensitive children and the elderly). Also the cardiovascular system (hypertension and arrhythmia, blood vessels-tobacco smoke, effect on blood elements, concentration of fibrinogen in the blood).
The immune system too can be affected in that the special cells of the immune system fight against toxic substances and the effects are hypersensitivity-allergies and autoimmune diseases or immunosuppression-reduced immune response.
3 Data sources