|2||Mavrovo and Rostuse, Polog|
|4||Gjorce Petro, Opstina Gjorce Petrov|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 98 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 34.5 µg/m³|
|PM10|| 87.2 µg/m³|
|SO2|| 3.9 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in Tetovo air is currently 3 times above WHO exposure recommendation
|Close your windows to avoid dirty outdoor air|
|Sensitive groups should reduce outdoor exercise|
|Sunday, Jun 20|
Moderate 67 US AQI
|Monday, Jun 21|
Moderate 67 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jun 22|
Moderate 87 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 105 US AQI
|Thursday, Jun 24|
Moderate 61 US AQI
|Friday, Jun 25|
Moderate 91 US AQI
|Saturday, Jun 26|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 110 US AQI
|Sunday, Jun 27|
Moderate 57 US AQI
|Monday, Jun 28|
Good 43 US AQI
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Tetovo is a city in the north western part of North Macedonia. It straddles the Pena River in the Sar Mountain foothills. A 2002 census estimated the population to be 53,000 people which will most likely have increased by now.
Towards the middle of 2021. Tetovo was going through a period of “Moderate” air quality with a US AQI reading of 78. This United States Air Quality Index number is an internationally used set of metrics supported by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and is used to compare the air quality in different cities throughout the world using comparable standards. It is calculated by using the levels of the six most commonly found pollutants. If figures for all six are not all available, the figure is calculated using what information is there.
For Tetovo, there were three recorded figures which were: PM2.5 - 25 µg/m³, PM10 - 31.1 µg/m³ and sulphur dioxide (SO2) - 2.2 µg/m³. This shows that the level of PM2.5 was more than twice the 10 µg/m³ limit as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
At this level, the advice is to close doors and windows to prevent more dirty air from entering the room. Those of a sensitive disposition are advised to remain indoors or if travel outside is unavoidable, then a good quality mask is recommended. The table at the top of this page will help with that decision.
Air quality can be affected by many variables and can therefore change fairly quickly, depending on local conditions.
Looking back at the figures published by the Swiss air monitoring company IQAir.com for 2020 it can be seen that the best month for air quality was in June when the overall quality was “Good” with a figure of just 10.9 µg/m³. From February through until May and July until the end of October, the air quality was “Moderate” with readings between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. For the remaining three months of November, December and January, the quality of air was at its worst when it could be placed in the “Unhealthy for sensitive groups” category with readings between 35.5 and 55.4 µg/m³. There were no records kept before 2020 when the annual average figure was 24.5 µg/m³. However, this may not be an accurate indication because of the restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many vehicles were no longer used as the drivers were furloughed and not required to commute to and from work. There were also many factories and other non-essential production units which were temporarily closed in an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus.
Emissions of air pollutants come from almost all economic and social human activities: traffic, industry, combustion and energy plants, households, construction activities, landfills (especially illegal) waste and agricultural activities. The combustion of biomass by households, i.e. the burning of solid fuels such as wood and coal, is an important source of directly emitted solid particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which belong to the class of carcinogens. Agriculture is a major responsible activity for ammonia (NH3) emissions, which has an impact on both human health and ecosystems.
Houses that are not connected to the municipal central heating system use wood and other flammable items to heat their homes during the colder winter months. Unfortunately, many households not only burn wood but also use car and truck tires and old furniture. Combustion of all this emits highly polluting substances into the air.
As the largest source of pollution, most activities will be implemented by the reduction of emissions of pollutants from heating in households. 10,000 households are to be connected to the existing heating operator (BEG). The heating network will continue to be expanded. VAT on heat delivered by a heat operator will be reduced to 5 per cent; the measure will contribute to an increase in consumption by 11 per cent. 20,000 households will replace old non-environmentally friendly wood stoves with more efficient wood stoves, and a further 20,000 households will be encouraged to purchase inverter air conditioners for heating.
The air pollution from the transport sector is most directly felt by the citizens, because the emissions are broadcast at the level of daily movement of the citizens. Therefore, the activities in this sector will be aimed not only at reducing emissions, but also at reducing the exposure of citizens even moving from one place to another. To this end, the activities will be focused on: Amendments to the Law on Vehicles (Introduction of environmental stickers, subsidies for the purchase of electric and hybrid vehicles, subsidies for the installation of devices that use oil or natural gas); restructuring of public transport; introduction of winter traffic regime and an introduction of a Park & Ride system.
Air pollution is the biggest cause of premature death and an increasing number of diseases in humans. It is the biggest environmental risk to the health of citizens in Europe, where according to EEA and WHO data it is the cause of about 400,000 prematurely lost lives.
The lungs are responsible for the absorption of oxygen from the air and removing carbon dioxide from the blood stream. The damage from the polluted air can lead to respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema or cancer. This can additionally impede the functioning of the circulatory system. Harmful air pollutants can cause other and some rarer but potentially dangerous health effects, including cancer and damages to the immune system, neurological, reproductive and developmental problems. Acute exposure to certain air pollutants can cause sudden death.
Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) can cause eye irritation, asthma, bronchitis, lung damage, cancer, heavy metals poisoning and effects on the cardiovascular system. Nitrogen dioxide exposure causes susceptibility to respiratory infections, lung irritation and respiratory symptoms (for example coughing, chest pain, difficulties breathing). Headaches, reduced mental awareness, heart attack, cardiovascular diseases, foetal development disorders and premature death can be a direct result of over exposure to carbon monoxide.