|4||Kadaura, Uttar Pradesh|
|5||Mandideep, Madhya Pradesh|
|7||Loni, Uttar Pradesh|
|8||Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh|
|10||Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups|| 119 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 43 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in Palwal air is currently 4 times above the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Thursday, Sep 23|
Moderate 68 US AQI
|Friday, Sep 24|
Moderate 78 US AQI
|Saturday, Sep 25|
Moderate 83 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 119 US AQI
|Monday, Sep 27|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 134 US AQI
|Tuesday, Sep 28|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 118 US AQI
|Wednesday, Sep 29|
Moderate 93 US AQI
|Thursday, Sep 30|
Moderate 99 US AQI
|Friday, Oct 1|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 103 US AQI
|Saturday, Oct 2|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 128 US AQI
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Palwal is a city located in Haryana state, in the northern region of India. It is in close proximity to Delhi, and is renowned as a center for cotton trade and industry, as well as being home to over 1 million inhabitants, a sizeable number that along with industrial activities sees a consistent rise in air pollution levels. These high levels of pollution stem from a variety of sources, many of which will be discussed in the following question, and are responsible for the high readings of both PM2.5 and US AQI present.
US AQI refers to a unit of measurement that is calculated from a number of main pollutants typically found within the air. These pollutants are ones such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter, namely PM2.5 and PM10.
Out of both of these fine particles, PM2.5 is the more harmful of the two, and is classified as being any material that is 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter, sometimes going down to sizes many microns smaller. Due to this immensely small size, as well as the variety of harmful materials that can go into making up this PM2.5 collective, it is also used as a prominent unit of measurement in its own right, along with being one of the figures used to calculate the overall level of US AQI.
Looking at some examples of the US AQI on record, in early May of 2021, Palwal was seen with a reading of 134, a high number that would place it into the upper reaches of the ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ bracket. This is indicative that the air quality would be dangerous for certain portions of the population, with preventative measures such as the wearing of fine particle filtering masks or avoiding outdoor or strenuous activity during these bouts of higher pollution being of utmost importance.
Those who belong to these sensitive groups would be people such as young children and babies, who are prone to developing a multitude of illnesses, allergic reactions or rashes that can have far reaching and sometimes life long consequences (such as asthma or other chronic conditions) occur.
Others would be the elderly or infirm, as well as those that lead unhealthy or sedentary lifestyles. Pregnant women should also take extra care, along with those who have a hypersensitivity towards chemical pollutants or pre-existing health conditions. These air quality readings can be followed hourly via the air quality map present at the top of this page, or by using the AirVisual app for on the go updates regarding the pollution levels.
Looking at some of the other levels of US AQI present in 2021, it can be seen that aside from the high reading mentioned in the previous question, there were also numerous days in which the pollution levels rose even higher, as well as there being an average air quality that can be considered detrimental to the health of the population.
Over late April, lower readings of US AQI were recorded going down to numbers such as 74 or 82, but in contrast, there were many days in April where the levels went up to readings of 165, 184 and 188. These readings would all be in the ‘unhealthy’ air quality ratings bracket, indicating that the days would see their air permeated by choking clouds of smog, smoke, haze and all manner of fine particles, both of the smaller (PM2.5) and larger, or coarse (PM10) variety.
In order to attain such high levels of air pollution, Palwal has many sources that all come together to contribute to these elevated readings. Pollution typically arises from a multitude of combustion sources, which include vehicle engines, with countless cars, motorbikes and other small vehicles being on the road at any given time.
Besides the sheer number found on the road, due to lack of stringent vehicle regulations, many of these vehicles would be aged and far past their best years. This would lead to them leaking far larger amounts of oil vapors and other noxious fumes, as well as putting out greater amounts of hazardous particles and chemical compounds.
Power plants, factories and other similar industrial areas would all have a large part to play in Palwal’s pollution levels, along with construction sites, road repairs and even poorly paved roads adding to the amount of fine dust found within the city’s limits.
Observing the data collected over the course of 2020, it can be seen that Palwal experienced its highest levels of PM2.5 in the months of January through to April, as well as October through to December. The highest readings out of all of these months were 82.4 μg/m³ in January, 65.8 μg/m³ in February, 57.5 μg/m³ in April and 60.8 μg/m³ in October.
All of these readings came in as ‘unhealthy’, which requires a PM2.5 reading of anywhere between 55.5 to 150.4 μg/m³ to be classified as such. January was the most polluted month with its reading of 82.4 μg/m³.
After April’s higher reading of 57.5 μg/m³ came to a close, Palwal entered into a period of time in which the PM2.5 readings fell to ‘moderate’ levels, which requires a PM2.5 reading between 12.1 to 35.4 μg/m³. May through to September all had these moderate readings, coming in at 33 μg/m³, 33.4 μg/m³, 34.5 μg/m³, 24.8 μg/m³ and 35.4 μg/m³ respectively.
This made August the cleanest month of the year and a time in which the air would be freer from the various pollutants and hazardous fumes found in the more polluted months.
Besides the pollutants mentioned earlier in the article that go into calculating the overall level of US AQI, other prominent ones would be black carbon, which is the main component in soot and a potent carcinogen, as well as volatile organic compounds, or VOCs.
Some examples of these VOCs would be chemicals such as benzene, toluene, styrene, methylene chloride and formaldehyde, all of which are highly dangerous and can remain in a gaseous state even at lower temperatures. Others include dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mercury and lead, as well as carbon monoxide (CO) and the various oxides of nitrogen (NOx).