|2||Agra, Uttar Pradesh|
|3||Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh|
|4||Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh|
|5||Kolkata, West Bengal|
|6||Kadaura, Uttar Pradesh|
|9||Barddhaman, West Bengal|
|10||Kirakat, Uttar Pradesh|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups|| 112 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 39.9 µg/m³|
|PM10|| 55 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in Kaithal air is currently 4 times above the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Thursday, Oct 21|
Unhealthy 165 US AQI
|Friday, Oct 22|
Unhealthy 156 US AQI
|Saturday, Oct 23|
Unhealthy 155 US AQI
|Sunday, Oct 24|
Moderate 99 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 112 US AQI
|Tuesday, Oct 26|
Unhealthy 161 US AQI
|Wednesday, Oct 27|
Unhealthy 161 US AQI
|Thursday, Oct 28|
Unhealthy 155 US AQI
|Friday, Oct 29|
Unhealthy 157 US AQI
|Saturday, Oct 30|
Unhealthy 160 US AQI
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Kaithal is a city and municipal council in the Kaithal district which is in the north-west of the Indian state of Haryana. In 2011 it had an estimated population of around 145,000 inhabitants.
In early 2021, Kaithal was experiencing a period of “Moderate” quality air with a US AQI reading of 77. This classification is in line with the recommendations by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The recorded levels of the five main pollutants were as follows: PM2.5 - 24.6 µg/m³, PM10 - 94 µg/m³, ozone (O3) - 10 µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - 4.8 µg/m³ and sulphur dioxide (SO2) - 5.6 µg/m³. With pollutants at this level, those with a sensitive disposition should avoid venturing outside until the air quality has improved. It is also advisable to close all doors and windows to stop the ingress of further dirty air into the home. The use of an air purifier would be beneficial if one is available.
As the air quality can differ over the course of a day, it should come as no surprise that the air quality differs considerably depending on many factors. The three autumn/winter months of October, November and December saw the worst levels with figures indicating an “Unhealthy” level with recorded figures between 55.5 and 150.4 µg/m³. For the remaining months, the level was classed as being “Unhealthy for sensitive groups” with figures between 35.5 and 55.4 µg/m³.
The reason for the increase during autumn and winter will be discussed in the next paragraph.
Many towns and cities in Haryana province are falling into the “severe” category when it comes to air pollution with extremely high figures of around 400. At this level, healthy people begin to feel the effects and it has a serious impact on those with pre-existing respiratory problems. This spike is being blamed on stubble burning throughout the state. However, it is also claimed that stubble burning is actually lower this year than previously. It allegedly is 30 per cent down on previous years. This gives way to controversy though because in previous years there was only one satellite responsible for the monitoring, this year there are several. When checked, around 40 per cent of the active fire locations, as shown by the satellites, were not found to be related to stubble burning. These may be related to the brick kiln, solid waste management, factories or roadside fires.
There are a lot of factors for the deterioration of the AQI, particularly in areas in close proximity to the national capital, like vehicular pollution, dust emission, road construction and solid waste burning. Furthermore, low temperature, low wind pressure and high moisture levels are also contributing factors.
The Air Quality Index (AQI) and concentration of primary pollutants such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen (SOx, NOx, and PM2.5) were determined in rice and wheat crop season, for burning and non-burning periods. During crop residue burning periods, concentrations of SOx, NOx, and PM2.5 were exceeded by 78 per cent, 71 per cent, and 53 per cent, respectively. A significant increase in SOx (4.5 times), NOx (3.8 times), and PM2.5 concentration (3.5 times) was observed in stubble burning periods as compared to pre-burning.
Even in urban areas, piles of garbage are set on fire as a means of eliminating them. Unfortunately, other garbage is burnt with it such as old plastic bottles and Styrofoam packaging.
The frequency of mechanised cleaning of roads and water sprinkling to be increased, particularly on the road stretches with high dust generation potential. It shall be ensured that guidelines/SOPs for dust mitigation at construction sites are strictly adhered to. In case of violations, strict action should be taken against the violators such as the imposition of penalty/temporary stoppage of construction activities.
As far as stubble burning is concerned, over the past few months, machinery has been made available to farmers who can use them to process the straw into briquettes which are bought by the government who supply them to power stations to use instead of coal. Another solution that is currently being tested is the spraying of the crop residue with chemicals that can convert the organic matter into useable compost within just 15 to 20 days. In this way, the starch in the stems is prevented from entering the environment.
When the AQI rises above the 200 mark, schools in Delhi start to close in order to protect the children’s health. In order to reduce the stubble burning incidences, farmers have been threatened with fines for those who flout the rules. However, to get over this ruling, many fires are started during the night when it is almost impossible to find the person who started it.