|1||Durgapur, West Bengal|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 92 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 31.6 µg/m³|
|PM10|| 77 µg/m³|
|O3|| 2 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in Vapi air is currently 3 times above WHO exposure recommendation
|Close your windows to avoid dirty outdoor air|
|Sensitive groups should reduce outdoor exercise|
|Sunday, Aug 1|
Moderate 78 US AQI
|Monday, Aug 2|
Moderate 81 US AQI
|Tuesday, Aug 3|
Moderate 85 US AQI
Moderate 77 US AQI
|Thursday, Aug 5|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 111 US AQI
|Friday, Aug 6|
Moderate 89 US AQI
|Saturday, Aug 7|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 106 US AQI
|Sunday, Aug 8|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 131 US AQI
|Monday, Aug 9|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 119 US AQI
|Tuesday, Aug 10|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 107 US AQI
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Vapi is a city in the Valsad district in the state of Gujarat, India. It is located on the banks of the Daman Ganga River, around 28 kilometres south of the district headquarters in the city of Valsad. Its 2011 population was estimated as being just over 163,000 people. Vapi is also known as “The City of Chemicals” as it is the largest industrial region in Gujarat, most of which are directly related to the chemical industry.
In early 2021, the quality of air in Vapi was classified as being “Unhealthy for sensitive groups” with a US AQI figure of 110. This United States Air Quality Index figure is published in accordance with recommendations made by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The recorded levels of the three main pollutants were as follows: PM2.5 - 39 µg/m³, PM10 - 74 µg/m³ and ozone (O3) - 4 µg/m³. With relatively high levels such as these, the advice would be to close all doors and windows to prevent the ingress of more dirty air. Those of a sensitive disposition should avoid venturing outside until the quality has improved. It is not recommended that anyone exercises outside under these conditions and it is strongly recommended that an air purifier should be used if one is available.
Looking back at the figures for 2020 recently released by the Swiss air monitoring company IQAir, it can be seen that the air quality depends on the season. During the colder months of autumn and winter, the air quality was recorded as having figures between 55.5 and 150.4 µg/m³. The warmer months from April until the end of September saw a slight increase in quality with figures between 35.5 and 55.4 µg/m³, but these still classified it as being “Unhealthy for sensitive groups”.
Historic figures have only been available since 2019 when the measurement was 41.8 µg/m³. This compares to the shocking 2020 figure of 65.2 µg/m³. Shocking because most cities showed an improvement in air quality due to the reduction of traffic and industrial output due to the COVID-19 pandemic but unfortunately this was not the case in Vapi.
The average lifespan here is 35-40 years, and that is all due to nearby factories and metallurgical plants, which emit very large amounts of chemical elements into the atmosphere. And the mercury content in soil and water is 100 times higher than standard! Since 1992, the small mining city has suffered from the release of toxins from urban plants. They settle throughout the city and its environments, and the entire population receives a large portion of these toxins. Currently, all local residents, including unborn children, have been ill for a long time and have serious illnesses. This is due to too much lead in their blood.
The vegetation in the city has almost disappeared, as the rain has burned it in a great concentration of sulphur dioxide. Acid rain affects people, even though they maybe do not realise the extent of its damage.
A recent review carried out by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) discovered that the level of air pollution in Vapi is at an all-time high. It is now considered to be the most polluted industrial cluster in the entire country. A total of 43 clusters were involved in the study which revealed that Vapi’s air quality has deteriorated significantly over the last two years. The report also revealed that during sampling and monitoring of some levels of the volatile organic compounds were found to be beyond the permissible limits. Out of twelve pollutants that were monitored in five different locations, six were seen to be beyond the acceptable safe limits. These included Pm2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide, lead, nickel and arsenic. As a direct result of this report, Vapi Industries Association and Vapi Waste and Effluent Treatment Company are to install constant ambient monitoring equipment to keep track of the chemicals that are discharged into the environment.
With it being such a densely packed industrial cluster specialising in chemicals, it should come as no surprise where the air pollution comes from. All these factories and processing units need power which is generated from fossil fuels.
Another key source of pollution comes from the transportation sector. The workers use their private vehicles to get to and from their place of work. Many of them using vehicles that use adulterated fuel because it is cheaper than the pump prices. Add to this the fact that raw materials need to be brought to the factories for processing and then the finished products need to be transported away to their destination. This is done using large heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks. These are often older vehicles that lack the new technology which makes newer vehicles so much cleaner. All these wheels churning up the dust from the ground and spraying into the air. They also produce significant amounts of solid pollutants themselves through the erosion of brake pads and the friction between their tyres and the road surface.
According to a recent estimate, "air pollution" kills nine million people worldwide each year. The main causes of which are heart attack, severe brain diseases, lung diseases and cancer. Air pollution is caused by harmful chemical (natural and man-made), biological (bio-aerosols) and some particulate matter, which harms humans and other organisms, as well as the natural environment of the atmosphere. While some sources of air pollution are natural such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires, fires most are man-made. Consumption of combustible fossil fuels has increased significantly with modernisation, apart from man-made sources of air pollution such as deforestation, animal husbandry and agriculture.
According to a recent study by the Global Burden of Disease, air pollution is responsible for up to 70 per cent of paralysis. One person is paralyzed every 2 seconds in the world, of which 90 per cent die within 1 to 6 weeks. There are approximately 20 million stroke survivors worldwide, of which more than 20 million live with a permanent disability. In addition to paralysis, the potential impact of air pollution on the brain is an emerging and worrying issue. Air pollution is a risk factor for cerebral palsy and some neuro-degenerative diseases such as dementia that can be reversed and therefore can help prevent such serious brain diseases. The effects of air pollution could be very serious in the days to come, especially for a middle-income country like India.