|3||Sirsa, Uttar Pradesh|
|5||Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh|
|7||Loni, Uttar Pradesh|
|8||Sector, Uttar Pradesh|
|10||Hapur, Uttar Pradesh|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy|| 161 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Bawana is currently 14.9 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Tuesday, Sep 27|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 120 US AQI
|Wednesday, Sep 28|
Unhealthy 156 US AQI
|Thursday, Sep 29|
Unhealthy 166 US AQI
Unhealthy 161 US AQI
|Saturday, Oct 1|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 145 US AQI
|Sunday, Oct 2|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 128 US AQI
|Monday, Oct 3|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 131 US AQI
|Tuesday, Oct 4|
Unhealthy 159 US AQI
|Wednesday, Oct 5|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 146 US AQI
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Bawana is seeing some high levels of air pollution towards the end of 2021, with forecasts that will continue to rank it high among some of India's more polluted zones. Whilst pollution levels will fluctuate and take Bawana away from the most seriously polluted areas, it still stands to reason that it's US AQI readings have put it on the map for having dangerous levels of air pollution. In late December of 2021, as the year is drawing to a close, readings of 163 were on record, placing Bawana into the 'unhealthy' air quality rating bracket. The PM2.5 concentration was found to be over 15.8 times higher than the World Health Organization's (WHO's) annual exposure guidelines for safe concentrations. With days before having had US AQI readings going as high as 633, placing it into the ‘hazardous’ bracket, the air pollution levels can certainly cause some significant harm to many members of the population within Bawana.
Health problems that can occur during higher pollution stints in Bawana, and indeed in many polluted cities throughout India, include irritation to the throat, lungs and generally the whole respiratory tract, which can easily turn into infections of the affected areas. Skin conditions can occur from smoke and haze exposure, including conditions such as acne, eczema and psoriasis. Further conditions include those that fall under the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) bracket, which includes illnesses such as pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma, as well as emphysema. Other more serious health issues include arrhythmias, as well as heightened rates of heart attacks, strokes and premature death, all of which can be directly linked to excess pollution exposure, with many studies highlighting this fact throughout recent history. This places a greater amount of emphasis on the importance of keeping oneself safe from pollution exposure throughout Bawana, particularly during the months that have the highest readings of PM2.5 and US AQI.
Some more prominent pollutants that can be found in areas around Bawana as well as throughout the rest of India include ones that mainly stem from the large number of combustion sources present. Open burn fires, combustion from vehicle engines as well as boilers in factories and other similar industrial sites are counted amongst some of the more prominent causes of polluted air in Bawana. Whilst the aforementioned open burn fires, or stubble burning practices (as well as the burning of trash and other waste or refuse) as it is more commonly referred to, are of much greater concern areas that have a higher concentration of farmland within the country, they can still be found around various areas of the greater Delhi region, and can cause large amounts of pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and black carbon to be released into the atmosphere, along with the other pollutants that go into calculating the US AQI aggregate. The chemicals used to calculate this US AQI figure include nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, as well as the two main forms of particle pollution, PM2.5 and PM10. Of these two, the smaller PM2.5 is well known as the far more dangerous, due to its minute size of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter allowing it to bypass the bodies defense systems and lodge deep within the tissue of the lungs (with more on this being discussed in the following health issues question). PM2.5 and some forms of PM10 can consist of materials such as water droplets and vapor, along with a variety of other liquids that can be aerosolized. Other materials include mold and fungal spores, bacteria, metals, nitrates and sulfates, along with finely ground silica dust, which can have a carcinogenic effect when inhaled. Some examples of the aforementioned VOCs include chemical compounds such as benzene, styrene, methylene chloride, toluene, xylene and formaldehyde. Their volatile nature allows them to maintain a gaseous state at much lower temperatures, thus making them considerably easier to breathe, and would be found prevalently around inhabited areas of Bawana, due to their release from everything from fires, cars, factories as well as even from household items. VOCs are one of the main sources of indoor air pollution and can emanate from products such as glue, paint, varnish, as well as aerosols such as deodorant, scented candles and other toiletries. These are some of the more prevalent air pollutants that may be found around Bawana, with certain areas such as busy roads and intersections that see a high level of rush hour traffic having higher concentrations of pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone and black carbon. Extra care should be taken around such areas, and wearing fine particle filtering masks can aid greatly in the reduction of hazardous material inhalation.
Bawana has many different sources of pollution present both within the city, and outside of the city limits. Due to certain wind currents, smoke and dust can be blown in from other districts of Delhi, particularly when larger amounts of soot and haze have accumulated, due to the many different polluting activities taking place. Some of these activities include the burning of crops, or stubble burning as it is more commonly referred to as in India, or slash and burn farming. Low-income districts, as well as rural areas outside of the city, can also produce large amounts of pollution via human activity, with households resorting to traditional methods of cooking or heating by burning material such as dried animal dung, firewood and charcoal. The combustion of these materials can release many different pollutants, with ones such as black carbon, volatile organic compounds and the various oxides of nitrogen being emitted into the air and upper atmosphere. Other major sources include vehicle emissions, along with road repairs or construction sites. Many areas that see the mass disturbance of earth, or have large clouds of fine particles thrown up into the air are prominent sources of extremely harmful particulate matter, and with lack of stringent regulations, can cause the air to become heavily tainted by dust and other fine particle clouds.
Before discussing which groups of people are more at risk of developing adverse or more serious complications related to air pollution exposure, it must be noted that any level of air pollution carries with it the possibility to cause negative health effects amongst those exposed, including healthy or otherwise fit individuals. Clouds of smoke and fine particles may trigger sudden immune responses, cause health conditions related to the skin, lungs and heart (in more severe cases) to arise. Referring back to the question, those who are more at risk include groups such as younger children and babies, both of whom are highly vulnerable to the negative side effects of chemical and particle exposure. Alterations to the nervous system can take place, due to many chemical compounds having this property when they accumulate in large enough quantities within the human body. This can result in slowed growth, as well as developmental issues and impaired mental faculties, with children who suffer from excessive pollution exposure for many years sometimes having these ailments, as well as sustaining damage to their lungs and other organ systems. This can once again have a domino effect of stunting growth as well as leading to other lifelong health issues. Other groups that fall into the sensitive bracket are pregnant women, who much like the young children and baby’s demographic, can subject their unborn child to the negative side effects of pollution exposure due to certain hazardous chemicals being able to make their way to the child in the womb, causing instances of babies being born prematurely, with low birth weight, as well as increasing the rates of infant mortality. Elderly citizens in Bawana are also at risk, due to them being more prone to suffering from respiratory or cardiac ailments. Simple chest or upper respiratory tract infections may develop into more life-threatening or terminal conditions amongst the elderly, with other comorbidities such as sedentary lifestyle, pre-existing health conditions, obesity, or habits such as smoking lending themselves to making these illnesses considerably worse. Lastly, many people can exhibit a hypersensitive disposition towards certain ultrafine particles and other chemicals found in the pollution in Bawana. As such, all of these groups would do well to stay up to date on the pollution levels, both for the current day as well as the forecasts for the coming week. Preventative measures such as wearing fine particle filtering masks and avoiding outdoor activities can aid greatly in reducing more serious side effects.