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live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 55* US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Kayseri is currently 2.8 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
Moderate 55 AQI US
|Tuesday, Dec 5|
Moderate 57 AQI US
|Wednesday, Dec 6|
Moderate 54 AQI US
|Thursday, Dec 7|
Good 50 AQI US
|Friday, Dec 8|
Good 33 AQI US
|Saturday, Dec 9|
Good 37 AQI US
|Sunday, Dec 10|
Moderate 77 AQI US
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Kayseri is a large industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey and is located at the foot of the inactive volcano Mount Erciyes. According to a 2011 census, the city of Kayseri had a population of 844,656; while Kayseri Province had a population of 1,235,000 people.
Towards the middle of 2021, Kayseri was experiencing a period of “Moderate” quality air with a US AQI reading of 53. This United States Air Quality Index number is an internationally used set of metrics supported by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and is used to compare the air quality in different cities throughout the world using comparable standards. It is calculated by using the levels of the six most commonly found pollutants. If figures are not available for all six, the figure is calculated using what information there is. For Kayseri, only the levels of PM pollutants were recorded which were: PM2.5 - 13 µg/m³ and PM10 - 34.1 µg/m³. These figures are quoted in micrograms/microns per cubic metre.
With air pollution at this level, the advice is to close doors and windows to prevent more dirty air from entering the room. Those of a sensitive disposition are advised to remain indoors or if travel outside is unavoidable, then a good quality mask is recommended. The table at the top of this page will help with that decision.
Air quality can be very volatile as it is affected by many variables such as the seasons of the year, temperature and hours of sunlight.
Looking back at figures published by the Swiss air monitoring company IQAir.com for 2020 it can be seen that the best quality air was enjoyed during May and June when Kayseri achieved the target figure as suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO). This target is anything less than 10 µg/m³, May returned a reading of 6.6 µg/m³, whilst June returned 8.6 µg/m³. With the exception of these two months, from January until the end of October the air quality was classified as “Moderate” with figures between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. In November, the air quality deteriorated into the “Unhealthy for sensitive groups” category with a figure of 40.7 µg/m³, it slipped even further in December with an “Unhealthy” figure of 62.3 µg/m³.
Figures for air pollution levels were first kept in 2019 when the average annual figure was 29.8 µg/m³ this was improved upon in 2020 when the level then was 24.6 µg/m³. However, this may not be an accurate reflection of the air quality because of the restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many vehicles were no longer used as the drivers were furloughed and not required to commute to and from work. There were also many factories and other non-essential production units which were temporarily closed in an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus.
It is said that the city has been struggling with air pollution for years, but it cannot be said that successful results were obtained in this regard. Despite the authorities saying that the use of quality coal in winter is encouraged, measures are taken to prevent illegal coal entry into the city and the use of natural gas is expanded, it is seen that air pollution has not yet decreased to the desired level. In addition, while the responsible institutions and organisations say that they have taken measures regarding air pollution, we ask the authorities why the air of the city is so polluted, especially in the winter months.
The high number of motor vehicles is one of the main factors that increase air pollution. As the population increases, so does the number of vehicles using the city’s roads. Many of these vehicles are cheap imports from other countries that are getting old and no longer allowed in their original countries. Many such vehicles are over 15 years old and therefore do not have the latest features installed which help reduce their harmful emissions.
Fuels should be burned in stoves and heaters in accordance with their suitability and the use of smuggled coal, which is relatively low in energy and pollutes the air more, should be prevented.
The use of natural gas should be expanded and encouraged. In order to prevent high increases in the pollution concentration, the heating hours of the heaters should be adjusted according to the districts.
The controls of the buildings that emit more polluting smoke from their chimneys should be made by authorised institutions and sanctions should be applied.
Economic insulation measures that will provide maximum thermal insulation should be determined and implemented. In the winter months, care should be taken to use public transportation vehicles as much as possible, unnecessary fuel consumption should be avoided to the maximum. Gasoline with low lead content should be used in vehicles, and engine maintenance should be done in order to increase combustion efficiency.
Air pollution's effects on human health are the most important effects on the way it enters the body, the exposure time, the intensity of the factors and the general health status of the person. It mainly affects the respiratory system and circulatory systems in humans. In a study conducted in Russia, it was shown that the pollutants settled in the soil also enter the digestive system with food.
The health impact of air pollution ranges from cough and bronchitis to heart disease and lung cancer. Although the negative effects of pollution are observed even in healthy people, some sensitive groups are affected more easily and more serious problems arise.
Due to the decrease in physiological defence mechanism functions and the increase in chronic diseases, the elderly are more susceptible than the younger population, therefore they are more easily affected. Young children are another group at higher risk due to incomplete defence mechanism development, higher ventilation rates per body mass unit, and more frequent contact with the external environment. They are also closer to the ground where most pollution from exhausts is found.
In addition to age, diseases that cause narrowing of the airway also increase sensitivity to pollutants. Studies have shown that exacerbations of diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) increase as pollution increases.