|2||Phu Phiang, Nan|
|6||Bang Khon Thi, Samut Songkhram|
|7||Hang Chat, Lampang|
|8||Kamphaeng Phet, Kamphaeng Phet|
|9||Mae Mo, Lampang|
|10||Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Phanom|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups|| 127 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Thawi Watthana is currently 9.3 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Thursday, Jan 26|
Unhealthy 156 US AQI
|Friday, Jan 27|
Unhealthy 154 US AQI
|Saturday, Jan 28|
Moderate 68 US AQI
|Sunday, Jan 29|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 106 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 127 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jan 31|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 150 US AQI
|Wednesday, Feb 1|
Unhealthy 161 US AQI
|Thursday, Feb 2|
Unhealthy 157 US AQI
|Friday, Feb 3|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 135 US AQI
|Saturday, Feb 4|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 141 US AQI
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Thawi Watthana is subject to varying levels of air pollution throughout the year, as is the case with many cities, towns and districts throughout Thailand. Halfway through November 2021, Thawi Watthana was seen with a US AQI reading of 96, placing it into the higher end of the 'moderate' air quality bracket, with a joint PM2.5 reading of 33.6 μg/m³ also being present, which is 6.7 times higher than the safe exposure recommendations set by the World Health Organization. As such, Thawi Watthana can be subject to higher levels of air pollution, with some months having considerably higher figures than others.
Due to its proximity to the capital city of Thailand, or rather being part of its many different districts that approximate the greater Bangkok region, Thawi Watthana is subsequently subject to a multitude of different polluting effects that arise as a result of large-scale industrial activity, along with further developments to infrastructure and the construction of new buildings. Human-based, or anthropogenic activity is also a major contributor to these elevated pollution levels, with the mass use of vehicles being one of the key factors in this area. With many people living in the greater Bangkok region often commuting into the city center for work, the large traffic jams and areas of highly condensed vehicles building up can lead to large amounts of hazardous particulate matter and all other types of pollutants being released into the atmosphere. Furthermore, the continued use of vehicles over the decades often leads to large amounts of microscopic rubber particles being deposited in the ground as well as being thrown into the air. The gradual wear and tear of tire treads from the many vehicles in use leads to the release and buildup of tons of this dangerous material, which can have significantly detrimental effects on the health of those who are exposed to it in the atmosphere, as well as having adverse effects on the environment and various ecosystems. Other contributing factors to increased pollution levels, particularly towards the end of the year (as is a common scenario throughout the whole of Thailand, but more prevalent in the northern regions) is the issue of open burn sites, or slash and burn farming practices. Whilst Thawi Watthana is not subject to the extreme side of this problem, it may affect its pollution levels during the months that the burning takes place (typically September or October until the earlier months of the following year), and as such caution should be taken during these times, with keeping up to date on air quality readings being of great assistance in knowing what preventative measures to take to safeguard one's health.
The main forms of air pollution found in Thawi Watthana are those that can be found in the US AQI aggregation, which includes PM10 and PM2.5, the two main forms of particle pollution. Out of both of these, PM2.5 is the far more dangerous of the two, with its size of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter making it able to bypass all of the bodies natural defense systems and penetrate deep into the tissue of the lungs, leading to some further health complications that will be discussed more at length in the next question regarding health problems caused by pollution exposure in Thawi Watthana. Other pollutants forming the US AQI figure are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide (both of which are commonly released from vehicles, with nitrogen dioxide being found very prominently in the atmosphere over areas that see higher levels of traffic, with the two often having a strong correlation). Others include carbon monoxide and ozone, or smog as it is more commonly known when found on the ground level. Other pollutants of note are ones such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chemicals that can maintain a gaseous state even at lower temperatures and thus are much easier to breathe, due to their volatile nature. Some examples of VOCs are toluene, xylene, methylene chloride, benzene, styrene and formaldehyde. Of note is that these are among the most common forms of indoor pollution, often being emitted from paints, varnishes, glues, as well as many other household items such as scented candles, aerosols and other heavily scented toiletry products.
Continuous exposure to elevated levels of pollution in the air in Thawi Watthana can cause a large number of dangerous and highly adverse health conditions to occur, being of particular prominence to certain individuals who are part of the sensitive group demographic, which will be covered in slightly more detail at the end of the article in the final question. Despite certain groups being more at risk, it is a common factor that even healthy or physically fit adults may find themselves subject to the negative side-effects of polluted air in Thawi Watthana, particularly if this exposure is of a higher magnitude or takes place over a longer period of time, a factor that may be very important to note for those that find themselves living near to much more highly polluted areas such as industrial districts or near busy roads, whereby the air quality will be poorer, and hazardous particles more prevalent in the atmosphere for much of the year. A higher number of ailments that can present themselves amongst inhabitants, as a result, would be the standard shorter-term ones such as dry throat and coughs, as well as the accompanying chest pains and mild infections of the respiratory tract. These usually resolve themselves relatively quickly when said when exposure to air pollution is stopped, or at least lessened. Due to this, they can be considered as acute health issues amongst possible health problems present in Thawi Watthana. With sustained exposure however, they may also develop into longer-term, chronic health problems. The continuous chest infections sustained as well as the accompanying coughing can lead to the scarring of lung tissue, which can result in a significantly (and often permanent) decreased lung capacity. As well as this, the scarring or damage and inflammation to the tissue of the lungs can make one more vulnerable to a whole host of respiratory distress, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presenting itself. This is an umbrella term that refers to a multitude of different lung and respiratory tract conditions, typically resulting in shortness of breath as well as making an individual at greater risk of severe damage from pollution exposure. Some further conditions that fall under the COPD bracket are one such as pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema as well as asthma. Other forms of damage that can happen within the body include increased risk of cancer, heart attacks, strokes and arrhythmias, as well as ischemic heart disease and many other cardiac or pulmonary conditions that can bring about decreased quality of life as well as lower life expectancy in Thawi Watthana.
Those who are more at risk of suffering from adverse health effects brought on by pollution exposure in Thawi Watthana include pregnant mothers, as well as young children and babies also being affected. The elderly also maintain a higher risk, along with the immunocompromised, those with pre-existing health conditions, or anyone with a hypersensitive disposition towards certain particle pollutants or chemical compounds in the air.