|1||Bang Khun Thian, Bangkok|
|2||Bang Khon Thi, Samut Songkhram|
|3||Samut Songkhram, Samut Songkhram|
|4||Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai|
|5||Nong Khaem, Bangkok|
|6||Ayutthaya, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya|
|7||Lat Krabang, Bangkok|
|8||Phan, Chiang Rai|
|9||Phra Samut Chedi, Samut Prakan|
|10||Samut Sakhon, Samut Sakhon|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups|| 104 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Sattahip is currently 7.4 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Monday, Jan 30|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 118 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jan 31|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 134 US AQI
|Wednesday, Feb 1|
Unhealthy 152 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 104 US AQI
|Friday, Feb 3|
Moderate 94 US AQI
|Saturday, Feb 4|
Moderate 84 US AQI
|Sunday, Feb 5|
Moderate 63 US AQI
|Monday, Feb 6|
Moderate 58 US AQI
|Tuesday, Feb 7|
Moderate 63 US AQI
|Wednesday, Feb 8|
Moderate 66 US AQI
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Sattahip has been experiencing some fairly significant spikes in its air pollution levels, with figures recorded over December of 2021 as well as early 2022 indicating that the air in certain areas will contain higher amounts of smoke, haze, chemical compounds and hazardous clouds of particulate matter, among others. At the end of December 2021, 'unhealthy' air quality readings were taking in the form of US AQI readings, with figures of 160 on record, indicating that many people would be at risk for adverse effects, particularly those that live closest to the areas of high pollution (discussed in further detail in the last question of the article). Air quality levels have risen and fallen, although when they do fall it has yet to reach appreciable levels of air cleanliness, as of late January 2022. Whilst improvements have been seen, these higher pollution readings will likely continue for the following months, moving between 'moderate' and 'unhealthy for sensitive groups' ratings.
When there are higher levels of air pollution present in Sattahip, many health issues may present themselves, with vulnerable groups being at the top of the list for most likely to suffer from the following issues. These include instances of dry coughs, chest pain and accompanying infections, as well as the illnesses that fall under the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) bracket, namely asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and other similar ailments that cause reduced lung function as well as narrowing of the respiratory tract. Heart diseases may also appear, with increased rates of heart attacks having a strong correlation to rising pollution levels, along with strokes, arrhythmias, damage to the nervous system and premature death as a direct, or indirect result of excessive pollution exposure.
Some more prominent pollutants that can be found in areas around Sattahip as well as surrounding districts and cities include ones that predominantly stem from combustion sources. These on their own are of an extremely large number, with open burn fires, natural disasters (such as forest fires, houses or buildings catching fire), combustion within vehicle engines as well as boilers in factories and other similar industrial sites, as was mentioned earlier in the question regarding what the main causes of polluted air in Sattahip are. Whilst the aforementioned open burn fires, or slash and burn farming practices as they are more commonly referred to, are of much greater concern in the northern regions of the country, they can still be found to a lesser degree dotted around various provinces of Thailand, and can cause large amounts of pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and black carbon to be released into the atmosphere, along with the other pollutants that go into calculating the US AQI aggregate. The chemicals used to calculate this US AQI figure include nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, as well as the two main forms of particle pollution, PM2.5 and PM10. Of these two, the smaller PM2.5 is well known as the far more dangerous, due to its minute size of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter allowing it to bypass the bodies defense systems and lodge deep within the tissue of the lungs (with more on this being discussed in the following health issues question). PM2.5 and some forms of PM10 can consist of materials such as water droplets and vapor, along with a variety of other liquids that can be aerosolized. Other materials include mold and fungal spores, bacteria, metals, nitrates and sulfates, along with finely ground silica dust, which can have a carcinogenic effect when inhaled. Some examples of the aforementioned VOCs include chemical compounds such as benzene, styrene, methylene chloride, toluene, xylene and formaldehyde. Their volatile nature allows them to maintain a gaseous state at much lower temperatures, thus making them considerably easier to breathe, and would be found prevalently around inhabited areas of Sattahip, due to their release from everything from fires, cars, factories as well as even from household items. VOCs are one of the main sources of indoor air pollution and can emanate from products such as glue, paint, varnish, as well as aerosols such as deodorant, scented candles and other toiletries. These are some of the more prevalent air pollutants that may be found around Sattahip, with certain areas such as busy roads and intersections that see a high level of rush hour traffic having higher concentrations of pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone and black carbon. Extra care should be taken around such areas, and wearing fine particle filtering masks can aid greatly in the reduction of hazardous material inhalation.
Whilst the air pollution levels can fluctuate dramatically at any given time of the year, due to many different reasons, it remains that smoke, haze and other dangerous clouds of fine particles can accumulate within the atmosphere or certain areas of Sattahip. Some of these reasons include adverse meteorological, or weather-related circumstances. Lack of rain during certain times of the year, coupled with an absence of stronger winds can lead to many fine particles and other pollutants building up, with the wind being one of the more prominent removers of pollution (although of note is that it can carry clouds of smoke over to other surrounding cities and provinces). Rain can assist in tamping down larger particles of soot, dust or pollen spores, although it is far less efficacious than wind in its removal of polluted air. Referring to the question, as with many cities and regions throughout Thailand (with the northernmost cities suffering from this issue most prominently) Sattahip will likely be subject to the highest levels of air pollution during the months that the open burning season starts to take place, although as mentioned to far less of a degree compared to provinces where this happens more prevalently. Slash and burn farming practices typically occur in the latter portion of the year, with US AQI and PM2.5 levels rising rapidly towards December and then continuing on into the earlier months of the following year before they start to drop again as the burning comes to a halt. This can also be subject to much change, due to other factors such as meteorological, or weather conditions, the occurrence of natural disasters (or manmade ones) as well as other anthropogenic activity, all coming together to cause more variables in the air pollution levels in Sattahip. As such, even with possible differences in air quality seen year to year, as a general rule, the pollution levels will be at their highest from September or October through to December, as well as January through to March. Due to the possible inconsistencies in guaranteed air quality levels, pollution forecasts should be followed, with the ones on this page, as well as on the AirVisual app providing hourly updates regarding the condition of the air in Sattahip, as well as many other cities and provinces throughout the country.
Some of the inhabitants of Sattahip that can be considered to be more at risk of suffering from negative reactions (and in some cases much more significant effects) from pollution exposure are people such as the elderly, as well as those with compromised immune systems or pre-existing health conditions, being worsened by other factors and comorbidities such sedentary lifestyle, or habits such as smoking. Other people that may need to take to stay clear from clouds of smoke, smog and haze include pregnant women, those with hypersensitivity towards chemical pollutants, as well as young children and babies. Of note is that location can also play a part in the vulnerable group’s consideration, as those that live near areas of higher traffic, such as near highways or roads that are subject to rush hour traffic on a daily basis, as well as in close proximity to industrial sites or factories, are at a higher risk of suffering from health issues due to immediate exposure, especially if it is consistent throughout the year.