|3||Wien - Kaiser-Ebersdorf|
|8||Wien - Laaer Berg|
(waktu setempat)LIHAT RANGKING AQI DUNIA
8:13, Okt 24
Indeks AQI langsung
|Tingkat polusi udara||Indeks kualitas udara||Polutan utama|
|Baik||21 AQI US||PM2.5|
|Open your windows to bring clean, fresh air indoors|
|Enjoy outdoor activities|
|Rabu, Okt 21|
Sedang69 AQI US
|Kamis, Okt 22|
Sedang74 AQI US
|Jumat, Okt 23|
Sedang93 AQI US
Baik45 AQI US
|Minggu, Okt 25|
Baik47 AQI US
|Senin, Okt 26|
Baik38 AQI US
|Selasa, Okt 27|
Baik31 AQI US
|Rabu, Okt 28|
Baik47 AQI US
|Kamis, Okt 29|
Baik50 AQI US
|Jumat, Okt 30|
Baik23 AQI US
Tertarik dengan prakiraan per jam? Dapatkan aplikasinya
According to the Air Quality Index (AQI), the air quality in Vienna is "moderate" with a PM2.5 concentration of 12.3 µg/m3 in 2019, a value which means that Vienna has missed the description of a good value according to the AQI scale by 0.3 µg/m3.
According to the stricter standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO), air pollution in Vienna is 23% above the guideline value of 10 µg/m3 for particulate matter (PM2.5) and far behind European cities such as Berlin, London or Madrid.
Compared to other Austrian cities, Vienna is ranked 11th in the IQAir Ranking 2019 of Austrian cities with the highest air pollution. However, when looking at previous years, Vienna’s air quality has improved. According to the Air Quality Ranking, Vienna is the second worst Austrian capital in terms of fine dust pollution, behind Eisenstadt with 11.3 µg/m3 PM2.5 and ahead of Linz with 13.3 3 µg/m3 PM2.5.
In the city-state of Vienna, three-quarters of particulate matter emissions come from long-distance transport, i.e. from pollutant sources located outside Vienna, often hundreds of kilometers away. These emissions are carried into the city by wind and thus contribute to air pollution in Vienna. Several pollutants found at the measuring stations come from the north-east or south-east, while the clean air masses come from the west.1
The local sources of pollutants are due to traffic in Vienna's city center. Although particulate matter in Vienna is also emitted by the combustion of coal, biomass and waste, but also by certain material processing, the combustion of diesel is a major contributor. In addition, there are emissions from private households and small consumers through heating or other pollutant-emitting behaviour.2
Normally, the vertical temperature curve becomes lower and lower with increasing altitude, but a corresponding winter weather situation in Vienna can lead to an inversion, i.e. reversal, of the temperature curve. Inversion weather conditions contribute to the fact that the levels of pollutants in Vienna are higher than without this common weather phenomenon. This happens because the pollutants are "trapped" below the warm temperature layer as a result of the absence of exchange between the layers that have been exchanged. This phenomenon also partly explains the higher pollution levels in winter in Vienna and its surroundings. However, geographically speaking, Vienna is not as strongly affected by inversion weather conditions as Upper Austria. Moreover, the occurrence and intensity of inversion weather conditions seems to have decreased in recent years throughout Austria.3
When looking at the available World Air Quality Reports 2018 and Air Quality Reports 2019, there is definitely a higher pollution load in Vienna during the winter months. A reduction of these values can also be seen over the last few years, but this cannot be attributed exclusively to the reduced occurrence of inversion weather conditions. In addition to the reduced inversion intensity, various measures have been introduced over the years to reduce Vienna's air pollutants.
In 2020, Vienna has been recognized as the world's most livable city for the third year in a row. However, this ranking is less concerned with air quality and its influence on a city worth living in. A closer look at the different districts of Vienna shows that districts with a lower socio-economic development have a higher NO2 value in the air. However, the socio-economic differences in Vienna are not as pronounced as in other cities, such as Marseille or Dortmund. The Global Livability Index does not consider air pollution in a comprehensive way and does not include socio-economic disparities within cities such as Vienna.4
On IQAirs air quality map, air pollution in Vienna can be followed in real time using data provided by measuring stations. These measuring stations are distributed over the city center and outer districts.
In the course of 2019, Vienna also managed to meet the WHO target value for fine dust pollution (PM2.5) for five months. These months were characterized by warmer temperatures. While the higher values in Vienna originate from the colder winter and transition months. In 2018, the PM2.5 concentration in Vienna was higher than in the previous year at 15.2 μg/m³, as a comparison of the World Air Quality Reports for 2018 and 2019 shows.
A popular means of public transport in Vienna is the metro. Several studies have shown that it is precisely in this public transport system that air quality is worst. A recent study compared the pollution levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in the Vienna underground with those outside. In most cases, a significant difference was found between the air quality values in the underground trains and the values in the surface air. The increased pollution comes from the wear of the tracks, wheels and brake pads within the underground system. However, the general air pollution in Vienna is influenced more by diesel or petrol-driven passenger transport than by an electric underground railway that gets its electricity from hydroelectric power plants.5
The level of air pollution varies depending on the section of the underground railway network. In particular, the underground lines U1 and U3 are expected to have high levels of air pollution in longer, underground sections. The occasional lack of air conditioning also has a negative impact on air pollution, as shown by the increased levels of particulate matter, as air conditioning systems is a potential type of air purification system. Thus, the air quality in the metro network depends on various factors.
Although particulate matter levels, like other pollutants, are normally not alarmingly high in Vienna, higher concentrations do occur in winter and are therefore a potential problem for sensitive groups. Sensitivity depends on factors such as health status, age and genetics, but also on breathing and sports behavior. A high level of air pollution for the population is caused by allergenic plants and pollen. The air pollutants measured in Vienna, such as particulate matter, ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), reinforce the effect of pollen in this context. Asthma attacks are also more frequently triggered by high ozone levels, among other respiratory problems. NOx, like NO2, increases the likelihood of getting respiratory infections and acts as a precursor gas for PM2.5. SO2 is also a precursor, but besides causing respiratory infections, SO2 also causes problems with vision.6
Particulate matter is considered the most dangerous pollutant and can be caused by chemical reactions such as burns or compounds from the precursor gases. PM2.5 penetrates deep into the respiratory system and damages it. The health effects include coughing, asthma and bronchitis, but also impaired lung function. In addition to the respiratory system, the blood vessels are also damaged by inflammation. It can also lead to increased blood clotting or a higher risk of heart attack. Exercise over a long period of time also increases the likelihood of lung cancer. In children, PM2.5 can limit lung growth and brain function. In the worst-case scenario, exposure to fine particles can lead to death in sensitive groups.7
As most of the particulate matter is being imported (around 75%), it is not only essential to introduce national measures to reduce Vienna's air pollution, but also to have cross-border discussions. This is because measures at an international level have an impact on local air quality, especially when, as in Vienna, the air pollution in question comes from outside the city and partly from outside Austria.
The remaining 25% of Vienna's air pollution, which comes from local sources, will be curbed by a package of measures against particulate matter. This package of measures focuses on different sectors that emit pollutants. The package starts with restrictions on winter road maintenance, which includes grit and salt. However, heating systems also reduce emissions of air pollutants through more district heating and similar rises in efficiency. In order to relieve general traffic, the public transport system will be expanded, and speed limits will be maintained. The City of Vienna intends to link public and private transport by means of external Park & Ride car parks. On construction sites, the replacement of various technologies is intended to reduce their emission contribution.8,9
An essential step towards improving air quality is the promotion of electric mobility, both in private and public spaces. The City of Vienna is focusing on a development away from fossil fuels in public and commercial transport towards an improvement of the electromobility infrastructure. Although private procurement is supported to a certain extent, plans of the City of Vienna show a preference towards an increase in the use of bicycles and public transport. However, financial support for electric bicycles has been discontinued in 2011, due to enough supply and demand.10
Over the last decade a significant rise in the use of cycle paths has been observed. Directly related to this, the bicycle infrastructure has also been expanded with more cycle routes and parking spaces. Climate-friendly transport and electric bicycles are also becoming increasingly popular, replacing other environmentally harmful vehicles in Vienna.11
+ Article resources
 Buxbaum, I., Nagl, C., Spangl, W., Schieder, W., Anderl, M., Pazdernik, K. & Haider, S. (2018). Analyse der Feinstaub-Belastung 2009–2017. Umweltbundesamt GmbH.
 Amann, M. (o. J.). Die Grenzenlosigkeit der Luftverschmutzung | Wirtschaft & Umwelt. Wirtschaft und Umwelt.
 Hiebl, J. & Schöner, W. (2018). Temperature inversions in Austria in a warming climate – changes in space and time. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 27(4), 309–323. DOI: 10.1127/metz/2018/0899.
 Khomenko, S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Ambròs, A., Wegener, S. & Mueller, N. (2020). Is a liveable city a healthy city? Health impacts of urban and transport planning in Vienna, Austria. Environmental Research, 183, 109238. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109238.
 Posselt, K.-P., Neuberger, M. & Köhler, D. (2019). Fine and ultrafine particle exposure during commuting by subway in Vienna. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 131(15–16), 374–380. DOI: 10.1007/s00508-019-1516-3.
 Öffentliche Gesundheitsportal Österreichs. (2018a, October 12). Luftschadstoffe - Gesundheitsgefahren - Klimawandel. Gesundheitsportal.
 Öffentliche Gesundheitsportal Österreichs. (2018b, October 12). Feinstaub - gesundheitliche Gefahren. Gesundheitsportal.  Stadt Wien. (2005a). 1. Maßnahmenpaket der Stadt Wien gegen Feinstaub.
 Stadt Wien. (2005b). 2. Maßnahmenpaket der Stadt Wien gegen Feinstaub.
 Stadtentwicklung Wien. (2016). Detailkonzept Elektromobilitätsstrategie Grundsätze, Ziele und Maßnahmen der Stadt Wien zur Forcierung der Elektromobilität bis zum Jahr 2025. Magistrat der Stadt Wien.
 Hachleitner, B. (2019). Mobilitätsreport Wien 2019. Mobilitätsagentur Wien GmbH.