|2||Tha Maka, Kanchanaburi|
|3||Bang Kruai, Nonthaburi|
|4||Phra Samut Chedi, Samut Prakan|
|5||Ayutthaya, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya|
|6||Bang Kapi, Bangkok|
|7||Bang Sue, Bangkok|
|8||Hua Hin, Prachuap Khiri Khan|
|9||Khan Na Yao, Bangkok|
|10||Nong Khaem, Bangkok|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy|| 153 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Mueang is currently 11.8 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Sunday, Jan 29|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 141 US AQI
|Monday, Jan 30|
Good 6 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jan 31|
Unhealthy 153 US AQI
Unhealthy 153 US AQI
|Thursday, Feb 2|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 141 US AQI
|Friday, Feb 3|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 128 US AQI
|Saturday, Feb 4|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 130 US AQI
|Sunday, Feb 5|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 109 US AQI
|Monday, Feb 6|
Moderate 81 US AQI
|Tuesday, Feb 7|
Moderate 73 US AQI
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Observing the air quality readings taken towards the end of the year in Mueang, it can be seen that some fairly high figures were on record, with the latter part of November coming in with US AQI readings of 129, which would place Mueang into the 'unhealthy for sensitive groups' bracket, which can present a fairly prominent risk for all members of the population as well as those that fall into the sensitive group's bracket (more information regarding this group is mentioned later in the article). At the time in which the above-mentioned US AQI figure of 129 was recorded, the PM2.5 reading was also found to be at a concentration of 47 μg/m³, 9.4 times higher than the safe exposure guidelines set out by the World Health Organization. Many other days came in with a moderate ranking over this period (51 to 100 required for classification on the US AQI scale), and a few days came in with a more appreciable rating of 'good' (0 to 50). As such, Mueang is subject to fluctuating levels of air pollution at certain times of the year. Caution should be exercised and staying up to date on pollution levels via the forecasts on this page or the AirVisual app can aid in knowing what preventative measures to take, in case of sudden spikes of air pollution.
Continuous exposure to higher concentrations of pollution in the air in Mueang can cause many dangerous or adverse health conditions to occur, being of particular prominence to certain individuals who are part of the sensitive group demographic, also covered later in the article. Despite certain groups being more at risk, it is well-known that even healthy or physically fit adults may find themselves on the receiving end of the negative side-effects caused by polluted air in Mueang, particularly if this exposure is of a higher magnitude or takes place over a longer period, a factor that may be very important to note for those that find themselves living near to much more highly polluted areas such as industrial districts or near busy roads, whereby the air quality will be poorer, and hazardous particles more prevalent in the atmosphere for much of the year. A higher number of ailments that can present themselves amongst inhabitants, as a result, would be the standard shorter-term ones such as dry throat and coughs, as well as the accompanying chest pains and mild infections of the respiratory tract. These will typically resolve themselves in a relatively short amount of time when the exposure to air pollution is stopped, or at the very least reduced. As such, they can be classified as more acute health issues amongst possible health problems present in Mueang. With continuous air pollution exposure taking place, respiratory aggravation may also develop into more long-term, chronic health problems. The continuous chest infections sustained as well as the accompanying coughing can lead to the scarring of lung tissue, which can result in a significantly (and often permanent) decreased lung capacity. As well as this, the scarring or damage and inflammation to the tissue of the lungs can make one more vulnerable to a whole host of respiratory distress, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presenting itself. This is an umbrella term that refers to a multitude of different lung and respiratory tract conditions, typically resulting in shortness of breath as well as making an individual at greater risk of severe damage from pollution exposure. Some further conditions that fall under the COPD bracket are one such as pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema as well as asthma. Other forms of damage that can happen within the body include increased risk of cancer, heart attacks, strokes and arrhythmias, as well as ischemic heart disease and many other cardiac or pulmonary conditions that can bring about decreased quality of life as well as lower life expectancy in Mueang.
Some of the main forms of air pollution that can be found in Mueang can be found making up the US AQI aggregation, which includes PM10 and PM2.5, the two main forms of particle pollution. Out of the two, PM2.5 is by far the more hazardous, with its size of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter making it able to bypass many of the body’s defense systems, penetrating deep into the tissue of the lungs, which can lead to many further health issues or other complications, some of which are discussed in the previous question pertaining to ailments caused by pollution exposure in Mueang. Other pollutants forming the US AQI figure are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide (which are both commonly seen being released from vehicles, with nitrogen dioxide being found very prominently in the air over areas that see a higher level of traffic, often having a strong correlation between the two). Other pollutants in Mueang include carbon monoxide and ozone, or smog as it is more commonly known when found accumulating on ground level. Other pollutants worth noting are ones such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chemicals that can maintain a gaseous state even at lower temperatures and thus making them much easier to breathe. Some examples of VOCs are toluene, xylene, methylene chloride, benzene, styrene and formaldehyde. It is pertinent to be aware that VOCs are among the most common forms of indoor or household pollution, often being emitted from materials such as paints, varnishes, glues, as well as many other household items such as scented candles, aerosols, or other various scented toiletry products.
Groups that should take extra care to prevent pollution exposure during certain months of the year include those with pre-existing health conditions, particularly those that affect the heart and lungs or cause the immune system to be compromised. Other groups that should also take extra care include the elderly, along with pregnant women, young children and babies.
Many of the main contributing factors in rising levels of air pollution in Mueang are ones such as the exhaust fumes released from the vehicles in use on the road. With cars, motorbikes and heavier freight vehicles such as lorries or trucks in use on the road, they all contribute to the pollution situation and can add to the PM2.5 and US AQI readings. It is not uncommon for many of these vehicles to be significantly aged, damaged, or in a poorer condition due to many years of usage, which puts a greater strain on the environment due to the larger amount of pollution released. This is due mainly to the poor combustion process that takes place within run-down or badly maintained engines. Large amounts of oil vapors may leak or escape from the engines, along with hazardous particles and chemical compounds also being released from them, in much greater quantities than what is usually seen coming from newer or more environmentally-friendly models. Looking back at the heavier freight vehicles that contribute to increased pollution, many of these larger vehicles utilize diesel as their main fuel source, which as a result can give out many tons of chemical compounds and fine particles that come from the combustion of fossil fuels. Furthermore, microscopic rubber particles from the residual wear and tear of the tire treads are also thrown into the atmosphere, leading to large buildups in various ecosystems over time. This causes particle pollution to go up by a considerable amount, impacting the topsoil as well as the various ecosystems and around it. Other sources of air pollution include dust from construction sites, road repairs, and even demolition sites (all of which can be a major source of particulate matter, far more than many people are aware of), along with the burning of trash, although this continues to be on the decline in more developed areas and mostly a continuing issue within certain provinces or far away from any major cities.