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|1||Khlong Toei, Bangkok|
|2||Bang Na, Bangkok|
|3||Bang Khun Thian, Bangkok|
|4||Ayutthaya, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya|
|5||Thawi Watthana, Bangkok|
|7||Samut Prakan, Samut Prakan|
|8||Pathum Wan, Bangkok|
|9||Bang Phli, Samut Prakan|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 65 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Tha Maka is currently 3.8 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Friday, Sep 22|
Good 18 AQI US
|Saturday, Sep 23|
Good 37 AQI US
|Sunday, Sep 24|
Good 35 AQI US
Moderate 65 AQI US
|Tuesday, Sep 26|
Moderate 56 AQI US
|Wednesday, Sep 27|
Good 36 AQI US
|Thursday, Sep 28|
Good 33 AQI US
|Friday, Sep 29|
Good 32 AQI US
|Saturday, Sep 30|
Moderate 58 AQI US
|Sunday, Oct 1|
Moderate 65 AQI US
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As of early 2022, Tha Maka is presenting with significantly elevated levels of air pollution, which is a cause for concern amongst its inhabitants as well as those who are passing through, although negative health issues tend to manifest themselves more amongst those who are subject to chronic, or long term exposure. US AQI readings taken in late January of 2022 went up to 157, which placed Tha Maka into the 'unhealthy' air quality rating bracket. At the time in which this reading was taken (with the US AQI figure being an aggregate of the volume of main pollutants found in the air, which will be discussed in further detail later in the article), the PM2.5 reading was also found to be at a concentration of 66.3 μg/m³, which is 13.3 times over the safe annual exposure guidelines set out by the World Health Organization. As such, the air quality in Tha Maka is highly polluted, and due to patterns typically seen in many cities throughout Thailand, will likely continue to be this way until the mid-months of the year, when the air quality improves somewhat. The end of the year and the early months of the following year are when pollution levels are at their highest, and caution should be practiced, particularly for vulnerable members of the population. Air quality forecasts can be followed either on this page or the AirVisual app, and during bouts of high air pollution, preventative measures such as wearing fine particle filtering masks can be utilized, along with avoiding outdoor strenuous activity such as jogging, and closing windows and doors to prevent indoor air pollution levels from rising.
Due to its central position in Thailand, Tha Maka can also be affected by the slash and burn farming issues that take place throughout the country, with the most prevalent burning activities taking place in the northern regions, with cities such as Chiang Mai being affected by considerable amounts. Due to this, pollution levels will tend to be higher in Tha Maka during the months that, year in and year out, always show elevated levels of air pollution which are related to the open burning of organic material found in forestland and crop fields. Besides the burning of these organic materials (which has been deemed highly illegal but continues to take place due to many reasons), there are also several anthropogenic and industrial related causes that contribute to air pollution spikes in Tha Maka, along with natural or man-made disasters potentially contributing.
Vehicles, as with many cities throughout Thailand and Asia, can contribute significantly to the air pollution levels, leaving accumulations of smog, haze, smoke and damaging particulate matter in the air close to ground level, making it easy to breathe and thus presenting many health risks to the citizens of Tha Maka (with some of these adverse health effects being discussed in further detail in the following question). With increasing vehicle ownership, there comes further pollution from said vehicles, due to the combustion process in the engines giving out high quantities of fumes that contain all manner of chemical compounds. Furthermore, with many aged or poor quality vehicles still in use (which are far more prevalent in rural areas, despite efforts to remove them from the roads), pollution levels can rise further from their use, as the poor combustion process taking place within the engine, along with cheaper or lower quality fuels often used, can lead to noxious oil vapors leaking from the engines, along with a much higher output of dangerous particles. Heavier freight vehicles, vital to the transportation of both people (buses) as well as industrial materials or other produce (trucks and lorries) can also give out a large amount of pollution, often running on diesel fuel which can give out many of its unique pollutants when combusted. With all vehicles, there is also the issue of residual wear and tear occurring on the tire treads, which can lead to many tons of microscopic rubber particles being deposited into the air. Rush hour traffic in certain areas may also lead to the buildup of soot, or black carbon around roadside areas, which can have highly damaging effects on both the environment, as well as human health when inhaled. Other prominent or noteworthy causes of air pollution include emissions from factories and power plants, along with other similar industrial areas. Poorly paved roads can give off large amounts of dust and fine particles, along with construction sites (and even demolition sites) all contributing to elevated levels of air pollution in Tha Maka.
Health issues and illnesses that can occur when air pollution rise to dangerous levels (and even lower levels of air pollution being able to cause dangerous and adverse health effects) in Tha Maka include coughs, chest pain and resulting infections, which can turn into more serious health issues if they are left unchecked, resulting in damage and scarring to the lung tissue itself, which can also lead to further respiratory issues, reduced lung capacity as well as a decrease in quality of life, and life expectancy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also present itself, with bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma and emphysema being the main illnesses. Skin problems may also occur, along with increased early death rates that can in many cases be directly linked to air pollution exposure. Due to the extremely small size of PM2.5 and the myriad of extremely dangerous materials, it is comprised of, its ability to make its way past the blood barrier in the lungs and into the circulatory system means that it can affect many different parts of the body, causing cancer rates to rise significantly, primarily affecting the lungs but also many other organ systems, as well as causing adverse effects to the nervous system, particularly amongst younger inhabitants in Tha Maka.
Those who find themselves at the highest risk of health issues from breathing polluted air in Tha Maka include groups such as young children, babies and pregnant women. Others include the elderly, those with pre-existing health conditions, as well as compromised immune systems, with these two often correlating with each other. Individuals with a hypersensitive disposition towards fine particles and other chemicals may also suffer from exaggerated health effects.
Some of the main pollutants that may be found in Tha Maka, more prominently during periods of higher US AQI and PM2.5 readings, include the main or most prevalent ones such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide and both of the particle pollution forms, the aforementioned PM2.5 along with the larger PM10. Other air contaminants include black carbon, silica dust, microplastics and rubber as was mentioned above regarding worn down tire treads, along with metals particles, nitrates and sulfates, as well as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some examples of VOCs that can be found in Tha Maka include styrene, formaldehyde, methylene chloride and toluene.