|1||Nanpara, Uttar Pradesh|
|2||Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh|
|4||Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh|
|5||Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh|
|6||Kadaura, Uttar Pradesh|
|8||Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh|
|9||Ghatampur, Uttar Pradesh|
|10||Unnao, Uttar Pradesh|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Hazardous|| 347 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 296.8 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in Unnao air is currently 59.4 times above the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Monday, Jan 17|
Unhealthy 181 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jan 18|
Unhealthy 177 US AQI
|Wednesday, Jan 19|
Very Unhealthy 254 US AQI
Hazardous 347 US AQI
|Friday, Jan 21|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 136 US AQI
|Saturday, Jan 22|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 140 US AQI
|Sunday, Jan 23|
Unhealthy 157 US AQI
|Monday, Jan 24|
Unhealthy 166 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jan 25|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 132 US AQI
|Wednesday, Jan 26|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 138 US AQI
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Unnao has presented with high levels of air pollution, both throughout 2021 towards the latter months of the year, as well as early 2022 still showing signs of badly elevated pollution readings. In late December of 2021, US AQI readings went as high as 407, placing the city into the hazardous air quality rating bracket. As the name indicates, when classifications such as this are reached (with this being the highest possible rating), the pollution levels start to present an extreme risk to the inhabitants of Unnao, as well as surrounding cities in which clouds of noxious smoke and fine particles can make their way via wind currents. Early January saw slight improvements, with readings going down to 127. Whilst this is vastly improved when compared to the prior readings seen in December, it can still present many issues to people throughout Unnao, and as such special care should be taken for those living in the city, with preventative measures going a long way in helping reduce negative health effects from excess pollution exposure.
Pollution levels in Unnao are elevated due to a variety of different sources all contributing. Many of them release their unique pollutants in the forms of smoke, haze and clouds of hazardous fine particulate matter. Along with certain ones that are unique to industrial processes or other polluting causes, there are also ones that are broader and tend to be released from many if not all of the polluting sources. The chemicals released from these sources will be discussed further in the article. For now, Unnao has its pollution coming prominently from industrial sites, factories, and other businesses (both large and small scale) that have a form of combustion taking place to provide energy. Any form of combustion can release large amounts of pollution into the air, and if these procedures are not handled with strict protocol (which is more common in certain areas that have less stringent measures in place), much larger amounts of dangerous pollution can escape into the air and drive the PM2.5 levels as well as the US AQI readings up. Unnao is known as an industrial city, and as such the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas and diesel can be major contributing factors. Furthermore, due to having a fairly large population that sees continued vehicle ownership, cars, motorbikes and other smaller personal vehicles would also release large amounts of pollution in the air, more so if they are of the aged or poorly maintained variety, or if lower quality fuels are used in their engines. Larger or more heavy-duty freight vehicles such as trucks, lorries and even buses can release many tons of soot and other particles into the atmosphere, with a fair amount of these vehicles still utilizing diesel as their main fuel source. The continual wear and tear of tire treads can also cause tons of finely ground rubber particles to enter into both the air, bodies of water and the earth, over long periods of time, which can have a harsh effect on both the surrounding wildlife outside of the city limits, as well as contaminating water sources, entering into the food chain and causing breathing problems amongst those that are exposed to these fine particles (amongst many other PM10 and PM2.5 pollutants present throughout Unnao).
Some of the inhabitants of Unnao that can be considered to be more at risk of suffering from negative health issues from pollution exposure are groups such as the elderly, particularly if they have a pre-existing condition. Furthermore, those with compromised immune systems or other health conditions, particularly of the cardiac or pulmonary variety are at much higher risk. This is exacerbated by other factors and comorbidities such as a sedentary lifestyle, and habits such as smoking. Other people that may need to take to stay clear from clouds of smoke, smog and haze include pregnant women, those with hypersensitivity towards chemical pollutants, as well as young children and babies.
Health problems and side effects that may emerge when pollution exposure is high in Unnao include irritation to the respiratory tract, as well as infections of the lungs and throat. Skin conditions can occur from smoke and haze exposure, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Further conditions include those that fall under the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grouping, with some instances including pneumonia, bronchitis, exacerbated forms of asthma as well as emphysema. More severe health conditions include arrhythmias, as well as inflated rates of heart attacks, strokes and even early death. These incidences of premature death have been connected time and time again directly, or indirectly, to higher pollution exposure, with numerous studies underlining this fact throughout recent history, across not only India but worldwide. This places a considerable amount of focus on the significance of preserving yourself and keeping your family safe from pollution exposure throughout Unnao, especially during periods that see intense spikes in the air pollution readings.
Some examples of the pollutants that can be found in the air in Unnao include those that can also be found within many different cities and states across India. In this inquiry the subject of stubble burning will also be mentioned, and whilst it may not have as prominent an effect in Unnao as it does in other cities throughout the country, the knowledge of which pollutants are released are always helpful be to aware of. There are some distinct disparities in certain areas, with factors such as weather conditions playing a role, as well as the natural topography and urban areas all playing a part in allowing the buildup of certain pollutants, or in the opposite regard, the dispersal of them. Strong winds can play important roles in removing large clouds of haze, smoke and hazardous particulate matter, as well as rain tamping down some of the larger particles that are found in the air in Unnao (although when the two are compared, wind is the far more efficacious remover of air pollution). With these differences taken into account, there are varying levels of the same pollutants found across different areas of the country. Certain industrial practices can also add to the pollution collective, with activities such as stubble burning in certain parts of India, as well as brick kilns, firecrackers during festivals and excess vehicle usage all contributing to their levels. With some of the sources noted, some of the primary contaminants would be those that naturally are used to calculate the US AQI figure, which are nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone (or smog as it is more commonly referred to when it gathers in more extensive amounts, often seen in areas of heavy traffic), carbon monoxide as well as the two main forms of particle pollution, PM10 and PM2.5. The latter of these two fine particles is the far more dangerous of the two, with its minute size of 2.5 micrometers or less (on occasion going down to sizes many microns smaller) allowing it to penetrate deep into the lungs, causing tissue deterioration within the pulmonary region, as well as crossing the blood barrier, assisted by its size, and thus being capable of traveling to the most distant reaches of the body, provoking a myriad of health issues. Other pollutants that can be found include a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as black carbon, which are both formed when fossil fuels and organic matter undergo incomplete or poor combustion, as is often the case in brick kilns, car engines (particularly aged or poorer quality ones), stubble burning as well as the unrestricted burning of trash and refuse. Some examples of VOCs include styrene, xylene, methylene chloride, toluene, formaldehyde and benzene. Black carbon, as mentioned above, is often found caked onto roadside areas and other similar sites that see a large amount of combustion take place. It is a potent carcinogen and is counted amongst the PM2.5 collective, although some of its particles can be slightly larger. Other forms of toxic or cancerous particles include finely ground silica (another known carcinogen that can also cause damage to the lung tissue when breathed in excess over long periods), microplastics, metals, sulfates and nitrates, along with oil vapors, frequently discharged from those earlier noted older vehicles. These are but a number of the pollutants that can be found within the air in Unnao, to varying extents depending on the area and its related activities.