|5||Chennai, Tamil Nadu|
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Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups|| 102 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Kozhikode is currently 7.2 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Wednesday, Oct 5|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 128 US AQI
|Thursday, Oct 6|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 113 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 102 US AQI
|Saturday, Oct 8|
Moderate 61 US AQI
|Sunday, Oct 9|
Moderate 60 US AQI
|Monday, Oct 10|
Moderate 59 US AQI
|Tuesday, Oct 11|
Moderate 60 US AQI
|Wednesday, Oct 12|
Moderate 58 US AQI
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Kozhikode formerly known in English as Calicut is an Indian city, second-largest metropolitan city in the State of Kerala. According to a 2011 census, the estimated population was approximately 2 million people.
Due to its coastal location it has historically been known as a trading city and dubbed “The City of Spices”.
Towards the middle of 2021, Kozhikode was experiencing a period of “Moderate” quality air with a US AQI reading of 89. . This United States Air Quality Index number is an internationally used set of metrics supported by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and is used to compare the air quality in different cities throughout the world using comparable standards. It is calculated by using the levels of the six most commonly found pollutants. If figures are not all available, the level is calculated using what information is available. Kozhikode recorded five major pollutants which were as follows: PM2.5 - 23.4 µg/m³, PM10 - 49 µg/m³, ozone (O3) - 6 µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - 12 µg/m³ and sulphur dioxide (SO2) - 6.4 µg/m³. The PM2.5 figure can be seen to be twice in excess of the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) recommended level of 10 µg/m³.
With a level such as this, the advice is to close doors and windows to prevent more dirty air from entering the room. Those of a sensitive disposition are advised to remain indoors or if travel outside is unavoidable, then a good quality mask is recommended. The table at the top of this page will help with that decision.
Air pollution is very volatile and can change very quickly depending on many variables, such as wind speed and direction and the strength of sunlight and the seasons of the year.
Looking back at the figures published by the Swiss air monitoring company IQAir.com for 2020 it can be seen that the best quality of air was enjoyed in August when the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) target figure was achieved which was to be less than 10 µg/m³. The actual reading was 9.9 µg/m³. The months with the worst pollution were February and December with respective figures of 36.0 and 36.1 µg/m³, which can be classified as being “Unhealthy for sensitive groups”. September provided the “Good” quality air with a figure of 11.9 µg/m³. Any figure between 10 and 12 will qualify as such. For the remaining eight months of the year, Kozhikode experienced “Moderate” air quality with readings between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. There were no records kept before 2020 when the average figure was recorded as being “Moderate” with a figure of 23.3 µg/m³.
This coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic when many vehicles were no longer in daily use in an attempt to halt the spread of the virus. Many factories and non-essential production units were also required to close which removed their emissions from the atmosphere and therefore, most cities revealed very good figures for air quality. Often much lower than their usual standards.
Vehicles and industries are mainly responsible for the deterioration of air quality in the state. Both create noise and emit air pollutants. The impact of vehicular emissions and noise is widespread while that due to industrial emission is limited to areas around the industries. Advanced manufacturing techniques have considerably reduced both noise and emission from automobiles and cleaner production processes have emerged which reduce emissions from some industries. But the benefits are being offset by the rapid increase in the numbers of vehicles as well as industries. This growth is more pronounced in urban areas. Air quality is therefore under increased stress around these places.
There is an excessive use of insecticides in India and the use of pesticides on a global scale, as India falls in a humid-hot climate zone. 0.5 kg of chemicals is used at the rate per hectare. This causes more damage to the crop than by insects and mites. Many insecticides are also used for malaria and locust prevention, while their residues are present in the environment for many years and farmers use them indiscriminately during crop production due to lack of knowledge of the harm of these pesticides to the soil and environment.
In order to control the smog arising due to dust, moisture and smoke in the atmosphere, the height of factory chimneys producing more smoke is 80-100 metres. Strict restrictions should be implemented at the national level on the establishment of all types of industries which produce smoke and create special pollution in the atmosphere.
The first requirement is to control the fumes and gases coming out of the vehicles. Vehicles must be less smoky than a certain standard or have special improvements made for energy reduction and emission control.
Necessary development of green belt should be done around canal roads and railway routes. Trees should be planted regularly and their complete ongoing care maintenance and records should be kept. Wherever space is available between buildings, trees should be planted.
The AQLI (Air Quality Life Index) is an index that converts particulate air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels into its impact on human health. In countries such as India and Bangladesh, the situation of air pollution is so severe that in some areas it is reducing the average life span of people by a decade. Researchers have said that the quality of the air people breathe in many places poses a greater threat to human health than COVID-19.
AQLI said particulate pollution is also a "serious concern" throughout Southeast Asia, as forest and farm fires in these areas, combined with traffic and fumes from power plants, poison the air. About 89 per cent of the people of this area live in such places where air pollution is more than the guidelines given by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
Everyone is worried about the damage caused by it. Due to pollution, people have to face many problems such as burning in the eyes, shortness of breath, asthma attacks, etc.