Air quality in Surabaya

Air quality index (AQI) and PM2.5 air pollution in Surabaya

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Weather

What is the current weather in Surabaya?

Weather icon
WeatherRain
Temperature89.6°F
Humidity66%
Wind8.1 mp/h
Pressure29.7 Hg
Air pollution has cost an estimated960 deaths*in Surabaya in 2024Find out more*Air pollution also cost approximately $250,000,000 USD in Surabaya in 2024.

live aqi city ranking

Real-time Indonesia city ranking

#cityUS AQI
1 South Tangerang, Banten

119

2 Surabaya, East Java

118

3 Bandung, West Java

72

4 Bogor, West Java

60

5 Jakarta, Jakarta

57

6 Pagak, East Java

52

7 Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan

18

(local time)

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live Surabaya aqi ranking

Real-time Surabaya air quality ranking

#stationUS AQI
1 House of Shiba Inu - Wisata Bukit Mas 2

119

2 SAQI - Benowo

118

3 RespoKare Mask - Kertajaya

88

(local time)

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US AQI

118

live AQI index
Unhealthy for sensitive groups

Human face indicating AQI level

Overview

What is the current air quality in Surabaya?

Air pollution levelAir quality indexMain pollutant
Unhealthy for sensitive groups 118 US AQItrendPM2.5
PollutantsConcentration
PM2.5
42.5µg/m³trend
!

PM2.5

x8.5

PM2.5 concentration in Surabaya is currently 8.5 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value

Health Recommendations

What is the current air quality in Surabaya?

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Forecast

Surabaya air quality index (AQI) forecast

DayPollution levelWeatherTemperatureWind
Friday, Apr 19

Moderate 76 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon
86° 77°
Wind rotating 107 degree 6.7 mp/h
Saturday, Apr 20

Moderate 67 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon
87.8° 78.8°
Wind rotating 114 degree 6.7 mp/h
Sunday, Apr 21

Moderate 94 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon
86° 78.8°
Wind rotating 122 degree 6.7 mp/h
Today

Unhealthy for sensitive groups 118 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon 100%
89.6° 77°
Wind rotating 125 degree 8.9 mp/h
Tuesday, Apr 23

Moderate 72 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon 90%
87.8° 75.2°
Wind rotating 120 degree 6.7 mp/h
Wednesday, Apr 24

Moderate 61 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon 100%
82.4° 77°
Wind rotating 127 degree 6.7 mp/h
Thursday, Apr 25

Good 48 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon 80%
87.8° 77°
Wind rotating 101 degree 8.9 mp/h
Friday, Apr 26

Moderate 63 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon 90%
84.2° 78.8°
Wind rotating 82 degree 8.9 mp/h
Saturday, Apr 27

Good 46 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon 100%
86° 77°
Wind rotating 90 degree 11.2 mp/h
Sunday, Apr 28

Good 38 AQI US

Human face indicating AQI level
Weather icon 90%
86° 78.8°
Wind rotating 98 degree 8.9 mp/h

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AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS FOR Surabaya

How bad are the pollution levels in Surabaya?

Surabaya is the capital city of the Indonesian province of east Java, being one of the four main cities of the country, with the others being Jakarta, Medan and Makassar. Surabaya has some 2.89 million inhabitants within its city limits, making it quite densely populated. In regards to its levels of pollution, Surabaya has consistently elevated levels of pollution, and whilst it is not as bad as some of the other cities located in Indonesia, the health effects of breathing the air here would be quite negative on those subject to it on a year-round basis.

In 2019, it came in with a PM2.5 average of 40.6 µg/m³, giving it a rating of being “unhealthy for sensitive groups”. Such a rating requires a PM2.5 reading of anywhere between 35.5 to 55.4 µg/m³ to be classified as such, which would mean that sensitive demographics of the population such as young children, the elderly and sick, or immunocompromised, would be at significant risk for adverse health effects. PM2.5 levels this high would also have detrimental effects on the healthy and able-bodied portion of the population as well, with a high number of health effects that will be explained in further detail.

PM2.5 refers to fine particulate matter of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter, making approximately 3% of the size of an average human hair. It is one of the main atmospheric pollutants and as such is often used in calculating the overall air quality, as a high number of fine particulate matter in the air means that there will be many negative health effects associated with breathing these fine particles.

With a PM2.5 average of 40.6 µg/m³, this number was enough to put it in 7th place out of the most polluted cities in Indonesia, as well as ranking in at 226th place worldwide, showing that the quality of air in Surabaya is quite bad, with high pollution levels and large amounts of smoke, haze and other particulate matter permeating the atmosphere.

When is it the air pollution at its worst in Surabaya?

Once again referring to the 2019 data charts (which of note, have some months missing from them in the earlier part of the year due to lack of readings available), it appears that air pollution was at its highest in the months of June, July and December, all with their own PM2.5 readings of 46.9 µg/m³, 49.3 µg/m³ and 47.8 µg/m³. These readings put the months into the higher side of the rating bracket (unhealthy for sensitive groups), meaning that the air would have a whole host of negative side effects.

Other months of note are October and November, and whilst they were not quite as high as the months mentioned above, they still had readings that put them into the unhealthy for sensitive groups bracket. The rest of the year found their months sitting in the ‘moderate’ pollution bracket (12.1 to 35.4 µg/m³), and when compared to other cities in Indonesia, shows similar trends in terms of pollution spikes. The capital city of Jakarta also found its worst months in June and July, with readings 58.3 µg/m³ and 67.2 µg/m³ respectively. Whilst there are large amounts of differences in the other months, these similarities go to show that the Javanese portion of Indonesia, and indeed Surabaya itself, will be suffering from its worst air pollution in the middle portion of the year (with the island of Sumatra being an exception due to the forest and farmland fires that occur in September, giving radically elevated numbers towards the end of the year).

What causes air pollution in Surabaya?

Whilst being conveniently located far away from the Sumatran portion of Indonesia excludes Surabaya from experiencing the catastrophic spikes in pollution that occur there (that also affect Malaysia and Singapore via strong winds blowing the huge clouds of smog and haze directly over to them), there are still many local sources that cause the higher readings of PM2.5 that makes the air so unhealthy to breathe. Pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO­2) would be readily available in the atmosphere, along with other chemical compounds and fine particulate matter such as carbon monoxide (CO), furans, dioxins as well as black carbon and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s).

All of these can be formed via the burning of fossil fuels, as well as the burning of organic matter such as wood, plants and even refuse and waste (which contain plastics as well, further compounding the issue). Black carbon is the primary component in soot and can often be found coating areas that see high volumes of traffic, such as underpasses and the sides of motorways. Besides being visually unappealing, it has a whole host of negative health effects when respired, as well as having significant effects on the environment.

These are the main sources and causes of pollution in Surabaya, coming from the high number of cars, motorbikes, trucks and lorries populating the roads, as well as open burning practices, the use of coal and other fossil fuels in factories and other industrial related production plants. These all combine to form the high levels of pollution that are seen not only in Surabaya but also country wide.

What are the health effects of breathing the air in Surabaya?

Whilst the range of symptoms would be extremely high in number, the ones of most importance would be instances of lung cancer, respiratory infections as well as irritation to the nose, eyes ears and mouth. Reduced lung function is commonplace, and young children can suffer from a host of allergies, growth issues as well as cognitive defects from over exposure.

Unborn babies that are exposed whilst in the womb can be end up being born prematurely, with low birth weight, or in the worst instances the mother could have a miscarriage. Heart attacks, arrhythmias and damage to the blood vessels and heart itself are also very possible, with respiratory, pulmonary and cardiac illnesses all being the most prevalent.

How could air pollution be reduced in Surabaya?

Actions that would have a direct impact on pollution levels in Surabaya would be the removal of as many diesel-based vehicles off of the road as possible, with a switch to cleaner fuel alternatives. The same would go for the numerous factories that are dotted around the city, many of which run of fossil fuels, putting out much higher volumes of pollution than is necessary. Whilst elements like this may seem a long way off, they would have rapid effects if the correct initiatives and enforcements were to be put into place.

Surabaya air quality data attribution

3Contributors

1 Data source

Data validated and calibrated by IQAirData validated and calibrated by IQAir

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