|3||Santos, Sao Paulo|
|4||Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo|
|5||Santa Gertrudes, Sao Paulo|
|6||Campinas, Sao Paulo|
|7||Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo|
|8||Guarulhos, Sao Paulo|
|9||Senador Guiomard, Acre|
|10||Jundiai, Sao Paulo|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Good|| 23 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 5.5 µg/m³|
|PM10|| 10.5 µg/m³|
|O3|| 30.5 µg/m³|
|SO2|| 0 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in Guarulhos air is currently 1.1 times above the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Open your windows to bring clean, fresh air indoors|
|Enjoy outdoor activities|
|Sunday, Dec 5|
Moderate 52 US AQI
|Monday, Dec 6|
Good 21 US AQI
|Tuesday, Dec 7|
Good 23 US AQI
|Wednesday, Dec 8|
Good 22 US AQI
Good 23 US AQI
|Friday, Dec 10|
Moderate 74 US AQI
|Saturday, Dec 11|
Moderate 78 US AQI
|Sunday, Dec 12|
Moderate 70 US AQI
|Monday, Dec 13|
Moderate 73 US AQI
|Tuesday, Dec 14|
Moderate 74 US AQI
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Guarulhos is the second most populous city in the Brazilian state of São Paulo and the 13th most populous state in Brazil. According to a census conducted in 2020, it has a population of approximately 1,221,927 people.
In September 2021, Guarulhos experienced a period of “Moderate” air quality with a US AQI reading of 99. This United States Air Quality Index number is calculated using the levels of six of the most prolific air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide and both sizes of particulate matter, which are PM2.5 and PM10. It can then be used as the metric when comparing air quality in other cities around the world. If data is unavailable for all 6 pollutants, a figure can still be calculated by using what figures there are. For Guarulhos there were three recorded figures which were for PM2.5 - 35 µg/m³, PM10 - 79 µg/m³ and ozone (O3) - 24 µg/m³. It can be seen that the level of PM2.5 is three and a half times that of the target figure suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Their target figure is 10 µg/m³.
With air pollution at this level, it is recommended to close doors and windows to prevent the ingress of more polluted air. Those of a sensitive disposition should remain indoors until the air quality improves. If venturing outside is unavoidable, then a good quality mask should be worn at all times. There is an app available to download to your mobile device from AirVisual which will inform you as to the state of the air in real-time.
Air pollution can be very volatile and therefore change very easily and quickly. Looking back at the figures published by IQAir.com for 2020 it can be seen that the best month of the year for air quality was in February when Guarulhos achieved the target figure of 10 µg/m³ or less, as suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The months of January and December returned readings of 9.8 µg/m³ and 10.1 µg/m³ respectively, which is qualified as being “Good”. The reading needs to be between 10 and 12 µg/m³ to qualify as such. For the remaining nine months, the air quality was classified as being “Moderate” with readings between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. The month with the worst air quality was September when the reading was 27.4 µg/m³. The best air quality out of these months was in November with a figure of 12.8 µg/m³.
Historically, records were kept from 2017 when the recorded figure was 17.3 µg/m³. The following year saw a level at 21.6 µg/m³ before an improvement the following year of 18.7 µg/m³. A figure of 16.4 µg/m³ was recorded for 2020 but this reading may have been affected by the COVID-19 situation as many vehicles were no longer in daily use in an attempt to halt the spread of the virus. Many factories and non-essential production units were also required to close which removed their emissions from the atmosphere.
Burning and forest fires are the main source of air pollution in Central Brazil and the Amazon. The levels of air pollution generated by fires in the Amazon region reach PM10 values of 500 µg/m³, which represents about 25 times more pollution than the normal average for the region (20 µg/m³). Deforestation in the Amazon is also the main source of greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil.
Biomass burning from deforested areas and pasture maintenance also releases large amounts of particulate matter. It has been one of the main causes of respiratory diseases that occur during the dry season in the Amazon. Between July and October 2019 alone, there were more than two thousand hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases directly related to burns, and the most affected were babies (21%) and people over 60 years old (49%). In August 2019, when one of the biggest peaks in the number of hot spots in the month was registered since 2010, about three to four and a half million people were exposed to fine particulate matter generated by fires beyond the limits established as harmful to the health.
In recent years, what stands out the most in the media are news related to climate, such as: air pollution generated by the burning of fossil fuels, emission of industrial gases, fires, among others.
This has caused an increase in global temperatures, greenhouse effect, rise in ocean levels, among others that are related. Given the situation, it is necessary that the current society takes strict attitudes in relation to air pollution.
There are numerous corrective and preventive tips to try to alleviate this problem, including:
Breathing polluted air doesn't just affect the lungs and can go beyond causing premature death. Air pollution affects almost every organ in the body. A recent study by the Forum of International Respiratory Societies shows that air pollution contributes to a range of diseases and complications, from diabetes and dementia to fertility problems and childhood leukaemia.
PM2.5 (fine particulate material) is a fine dust emitted mainly by vehicles, industries and sugarcane burning. In the human body, this particle has effects that cause respiratory diseases, ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and lung cancer.
Ozone, a gas formed by combinations of other pollutants from traffic, landfills and agriculture, among other sources, is invisible. It contributed to 500,000 deaths worldwide in 2017 and was the cause of up to 23 million emergency calls in 2015. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), one of the precursors of ozone caused mainly by the combustion of fossil fuels, can cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and have reproductive and developmental impacts.
Data sources 1