|1||Jhusi, Uttar Pradesh|
|3||Durgapur, West Bengal|
|8||Hosur, Tamil Nadu|
|9||Loni, Uttar Pradesh|
|10||Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
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Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups|| 145 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Solapur is currently 10.7 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Friday, Sep 23|
Moderate 86 US AQI
|Saturday, Sep 24|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 125 US AQI
|Sunday, Sep 25|
Unhealthy 151 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 145 US AQI
|Tuesday, Sep 27|
Moderate 97 US AQI
|Wednesday, Sep 28|
Moderate 97 US AQI
|Thursday, Sep 29|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 102 US AQI
|Friday, Sep 30|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 127 US AQI
|Saturday, Oct 1|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 106 US AQI
|Sunday, Oct 2|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 104 US AQI
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Solapur, formerly known as Sholapur, is a city located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, in the southwestern portion, adjacent to the border with Karnataka. It is a well connected city that has significant road and railway infrastructure with other major cities such as Pune, Mumbai, Bangalore and Hyderabad, as well as links to other cities in its neighboring state of Karnataka. Solapur also has an international airport underway in its construction, which will lend further to the rapid development that it is already experiencing.
With a population of 951 thousand (taken in 2011 and thus will have grown considerably since then), as well as a major industrial presence within the city, coupled with large product import, export and textile manufacturing, Solapur would be subject to a rather large array of different pollutive sources. To use the data available on record, Solapur came in with a PM2.5 yearly average of 36.9 μg/m³ over the course of 2019.
This reading placed it into the ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ bracket, which requires a PM2.5 reading of anywhere between 35.5 to 55.4 μg/m³ to be classified as such. As the name suggests, this has a number of ill effects on many people within the general population, which will be delved into in following. This reading of 36.9 μg/m³ placed Solapur in 280th place out of all cities ranked worldwide, as well as 71st place out of all cities ranked in India, displaying that it is indeed a city with some major pollutive issues that could go a long way to improve its air quality ratings in the coming years.
Solapur is subject to a vast amount of different pollutive sources, as is common with many of the major cities throughout India, related in part to their massive population, as well as the rapid urban growth and addition of infrastructure that is taking place at an unprecedented rate throughout Solapur and indeed the whole country. One of these major causes of pollution would be from automobiles, with countless personal vehicles such as motorbikes, tuk tuk’s and cars all inhabiting the road, putting out huge amounts of exhaust fumes and hazardous particulate matter such as black soot.
To compound this issue, many of these vehicles would be aged and well past their best days, still on the road due to a lack of more stringent rules in place regarding vehicle age and condition. As a result, these aged vehicles can leak far more noxious oil vapors as well as higher amounts of chemical pollutants due to a poor combustion process taking place (as well as lower quality fuels often being used, compounding the situation further).
Other sources include the massive pollutive output from the many factories and industrial areas throughout the city, with the manufacturing plants being well known for contributing excessively to the air pollution levels, as well as affecting the soil and water through leaking of industrial effluence. Other sources of pollution in Solapur would be from construction sites, road repairs (both of which can leak far more finely ground dangerous materials than many people are aware of) as well as the open burning of refuse, garbage and firewood, done by the general population and more prevalent in lower income districts for a number of socio-economic reasons.
Observing the data taken over the course of 2019, Solapur witnessed a period of time in which the PM2.5 count climbed much higher than was seen through the rest of the year. This is a pattern seen through many cities in India, which have clear cut periods of time where there are massive elevations in pollution, and periods where the PM2.5 count drops significantly (but still maintains a relatively poor quality of air, in comparison to many other cities around the world).
In 2019, October through to November is when the pollution levels started to show a noticeable difference. October came in with a reading of 23.5 μg/m³, which was then followed by a significant jump up to 45.4 μg/m³ in November, and then a further 46 μg/m³ in December. This then followed on into the early months of the following year, which was when Solapur really saw its worst readings of air pollution. January came in with a reading of 103.6 μg/m³, making it the most polluted month of the year and also putting it into the ‘unhealthy’ ratings bracket, which requires a PM2.5 reading of anywhere between 55.5 to 150.4 μg/m³.
February through April was also part of this polluted time period, with readings of 69.5 μg/m³, 47.6 μg/m³ and 42.1 μg/m³ respectively. In closing, the months of November through to April of the following year was when air pollution was at its very worst, before the PM2.5 count dropped considerably during the month of May onwards.
Whilst the most polluted months would bring with them a vast array of health issues to the whole population, there are demographics that are the most at risk. These include young children, the elderly, those with preexisting health conditions, as well as those with compromised immune systems or with a particular sensitivity towards chemical pollutants. Pregnant mothers are also very much at risk, due to the disastrous consequences overexposure to pollution can have on their unborn child (as well as the health of the mother).
Whilst there is a myriad of health issues associated with excessive pollution exposure in Solapur, a few of the most prominent ones will be discussed. These include instances of ischemic heart disease, caused by oxygen deprivation to the heart tissue and subsequent damage it incurs. This can in turn raise the chance for heart attacks, angina as well as arrythmias.
Cancer rates have soared as well, mostly afflicting the lungs but also able to affect the throat as well as many other organs throughout the body. Respiratory conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema and aggravated forms of asthma are all very possible, and as such the need for preventative measures as well as staying safe from highly polluted air becomes all the more important for inhabitants of Solapur.