Air quality in Tinh Dong Nai

Air quality index (AQI) and PM2.5 air pollution in Tinh Dong Nai

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Real-time Tinh Dong Nai
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#cityUS AQI
1 Bien Hoa


(local time)


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Real-time Tinh Dong Nai
Cleanest city ranking

#cityUS AQI
1 Bien Hoa


(local time)


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Unhealthy for sensitive groups
Very unhealthy
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How good is the air quality in Tinh Dong Nai?

Tinh Dong Nai is a Vietnamese state approximately 30 kilometres east of Ho Chi MinhCity which is often looked upon as the southern capital city. It has anexcellent road connection with Ho Chi Minh City from Vietnam Highway 1. In 2018the estimated population was 1.25 million people.

At the beginning of 2021, the air quality in Tinh Dong Nai was noted to be“Unhealthy for sensitive groups” with a relatively high US AQI number of 111.During the months of November and December, Ho Chi Minh City had alsoexperienced this level of air pollution but for the remaining 10 months, thelevel was classed as “Moderate”. These figures are based on suggested levels by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

What can be done to improve the air quality in Tinh Dong Nai?

Dong Nai has been monitoring the AQI (air quality index) since 2003 to keep track ofthe changes in air quality in many areas. The whole province currently has 126monitoring stations, which are mainly found in high-risk areas (52 monitoringlocations around industrial zones (IPs), 10 locations around industrialclusters, 25 locations in residential areas, 13 locations at some majorintersections and 9 locations in solid waste treatment areas. The frequency of operationis every 2 months with many parameters such as temperature, humidity, winddirection, wind speed, particulate matter of both PM2.5 and PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and noise levels recorded.

The results of monitoring the air situation for 3 consecutive years and 9 months of2019 show that the AQI index in the area is relatively stable, the parametersin most of the monitoring locations meet Vietnamese standards. However, thereare still some areas with local air pollution occurring at some time during themonitoring, which is mainly dust in the mining areas and traffic concentrationareas. However, monitoring positions in some industrial clusters detected dustconcentrations in excess of an acceptable level.

Additionally, results from 2 monitoring stations continuously recorded and noted that the AQIlevels are within the allowed standard threshold. Inevitably, pollution stilloccurs locally at some intersections with a high density of vehicles at rushhour. From this result, it can be said that Tinh Dong Nai has not faced the risk of air pollution on a large scale.

On 23rd September 2020, the local authorities had to intervene andsuspend operations by one particular factory. The La Nga Sugar Joint StockCompany which is located in La Nga Commune, Dinh Quan district, Dong Nai province.

Because of the monitoring program on the implementation of the regulations onenvironmental protection, the local authorities discovered that Cane JointStock Company in La Nga commune had allowed exhaust gas exceeding theprescribed standards and discharged wastewater without permission into theenvironment. The production was suspended for 9 months and the company wasrequired to take preventative measures in order to prevent a similar occurrencein the future. They were fined 4 billion VND and were informed that if they arenow able to work within the parameters laid down by the local authorities, theywill be allowed to restart their operations.

The activities of a carpentry workshop which was causing noise and dust and greatlyaffecting the daily life of the households in the area were reported to thelocal authorities who came to an agreement with the workshop who agreed torelocate to an area away from the residential part of the city.

Is the air quality the same in all of Tinh Dong Nai?

In May 2019, whilst monitoring 19 industrial clusters, dust parameters weredetected in locations around some industrial clusters from 1.06-1.57 timeshigher than the acceptable levels. These are the areas where many companies produceconstruction materials and there is a high volume of trucks carrying soil androck which are frequently moving from one site to another.

Recently, the Department has implemented many solutions as well as requiring the wastesource owners to invest in environmental protection works such as mistspraying, a cleaner means of transport and investment in new technology. Wastegas from their chimneys can be treated before being released into theatmosphere. They are also encouraged to use clean-burning materials for production.As far as mines in the area, the Department has installed cameras to transmitdata to the unit for monitoring and supervision. And advice when the air quality is unacceptable.

In Nhon Trach industrial park (Nhon Trach district), the synthetic dust parameterexceeded the standard by 2.56 times. Observation at the Long Thanh IndustrialPark showed that the synthetic dust index exceeded the standards by1.15 times. XuanLoc industrial park exceeded by 1.23 times; Ho Nai industrial park exceeded by1.16 times; Tam Phuoc industrial park exceeded by 1.19 times; Amata industrialpark exceeded by 1.35 times; Bien Hoa 1 industrial park exceeded by 1.37 times,and Bien Hoa 2 industrial park exceeded by1.34 times higher than regulated standards.

In addition, monitoring in the Dong Mu Rua temporary landfill area in Nhon Trach districtshowed that the environmental index of synthetic dust in this area exceeded thestandard by 9.19 times the permitted level. Also at the Hiep Phuoc intersection,the environmental parameters for synthetic dust parameter exceed by 1.42 timesthe permitted standard.

It was stated that this could have an adverse impact on the health of people inthe affected area. The local authorities can now instigate remedial plans inorder to restore a healthy environment to the affected area.

Does the transportation system contribute to poor air quality in Tinh Dong Nai?

In January 2020 the local authorities of Dong Nai province issued an officialdocument on strengthening air pollution control and the handling of hot spotsfor dust pollution and emissions in the area. In particular, they requested thatthe results of the air quality monitoring are published online so thatresidents have free and easy access to the figures and can plan their actions,accordingly. In Ba Ria Vung Tau the local authorities have installed large LEDscreens at two main intersections which display the air quality in real-time.Perhaps this is something to be considered for the future. With advances inmodern technology, it is possible to access this information through a downloadable app on a smartphone.

Where does most of the air pollution in Tinh Dong Nai come from?

As with most cities, the major cause of air pollution in cities comes from vehicleexhaust. Other sources are from the large industrial zones situated on theedges of the city and also from poor quality air that is blown in from otherregions, sometimes even from other countries.

Because of its proximity to Ho Chi Minh City, many people commute between the twocities on a daily basis. Many of the vehicles are old and not maintained tohigh standards. There are 1000’s of motorbikes on these roads as they make upthe most popular form of transport because of the availability, convenience andlow running costs. Gasoline can be adulterated with the addition of cheaphydrocarbons which are certainly not good for the environment.

Many of the large, heavy-duty trucks are powered by diesel which is a particularlyhigh source of soot or black carbon (BC). This is categorised as PM2.5particles which are dangerous to the human body because of their microscopicsize. They can easily bypass the body’s natural defence mechanism and penetratedeep into the lungs. Here they lodge themselves at the base of the bronchialtubes, in the alveoli. It is here where oxygen and nitrogen dioxide areexchanged so these small particles easily find their way into the bloodstream.Once in the blood, they eventually find their way to the heart where most of the damage can be done.

Most of the gas generated from the process of burning firewood, coal and charcoalhas not been treated before discharge into the environment. Almost 99 per centof combustion products are substances such as nitric oxides (NOx),steam (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and PM2.5 and PM10particles. During the burning process, a large amount of soot, ash and sometoxic gases are produced. There is a company who provides flexible technologysolutions in each waste gas treatment unit, technology measures are implementedbased on the waste source quality assessment standards. Depending on waste sourcessuch as fuel burning whose concentrations and characteristics of the source aredifferent, the company provides services in many forms from turnkey projects tosupplying individual pieces of equipment. They can typically supply airpollution control equipment, the construction of waste gas treatment works andoffer consultations as to how best to take control of the situation.

What are the health effects of breathing poor quality air in Tinh Dong Nai?

The Department of Natural Resources and Environment regularly publishes the AQI index in each specific region. In areaswith unacceptable levels, the Department recommends that people from sensitivegroups, such as children under the age of 14 years, pregnant women, and seniorcitizens go out only when necessary and even then spend as little time aspossible in the dirty air. When going outside, it is advisable to wear a goodquality mask and shield where possible when exposed to a polluted environment.At the same time, the Department also informs industries and localities whenAQI is bad, so they can take measures to control, regulate traffic and strengthen control of emissions.

Tinh Dong Nai air quality data attribution

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