|1||Chaloem Phra Kiat, Sara Buri|
|2||Ongkharak, Nakhon Nayok|
|3||Nakhon Chai Si, Nakhon Pathom|
|4||Nam Phong, Khon Kaen|
|5||Nong Khai, Nong Khai|
|7||Khlong Sam Wa, Bangkok|
|8||Phra Samut Chedi, Samut Prakan|
|9||Uthai, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups|| 128 US AQI||PM2.5|
|PM2.5|| 46.6 µg/m³|
PM2.5 concentration in Uthai air is currently 9.3 times above the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Monday, Jan 17|
Unhealthy 162 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jan 18|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 107 US AQI
|Wednesday, Jan 19|
Moderate 95 US AQI
|Thursday, Jan 20|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 116 US AQI
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 128 US AQI
|Saturday, Jan 22|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 101 US AQI
|Sunday, Jan 23|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 131 US AQI
|Monday, Jan 24|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 129 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jan 25|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 137 US AQI
|Wednesday, Jan 26|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 124 US AQI
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As of late 2021, the pollution levels in Uthai are shown to be reaching dangerous readings, coming in with PM2.5 and US AQI figures (both pollution measurements) that indicate that the air within Uthai is harmful to breathe, particularly within certain areas where pollution is more likely to accumulate. In the final days of 2021, a US AQI reading of 163 was recorded, giving Uthai an 'unhealthy' classification, with a PM2.5 level that was 15.8 times higher than the safe annual exposure recommendations set out by the World Health Organization's (WHO's) standards. As such, whilst it is commonplace for cities and provinces in Thailand to suffer from extremely elevated pollution levels towards the end of the year, it must be noted that Uthai will not have such extreme pollution levels throughout the whole of the year. However, when the levels do rise as far as the above-mentioned figures, preventative measures become of even more important to keep oneself safe from the multitude of adverse health effects that can occur as a result.
Health problems that can occur when pollution exposure is not regulated amongst individuals in Uthai include a variety of different forms of irritation to the respiratory tract, which can cause infections to occur within the lungs and throat. Skin conditions may likewise crop up, as a consequence of smoke and haze exposure, which include atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and more persistent or severe forms of acne. Further conditions include those that fall beneath the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) bracket, with some examples including pneumonia, bronchitis, aggravated forms of asthma as well as emphysema. Additional severe health developments can include arrhythmias, as well as inflated rates of heart attacks, strokes and even early death, all of which have can be directly correlated to excess pollution exposure, with many studies emphasizing this fact in recent history. This puts a large amount of emphasis on the significance of keeping yourself and your family safe from pollution exposure throughout Uthai, particularly during the months that carry with them the highest readings of PM2.5 and US AQI.
Causes of higher levels of air pollution in Uthai and ensuing clouds of fine particles and dust, smoke, haze and other toxic materials, come predominantly from an assortment of combustion sources. These include the unrestricted burning of organic waste or refuse (far less prominent than it was in times past, although it can still occur in many areas outside of larger cities), as well as smoke blown over from slash and burn farming practices. Automobiles are a significant contributor to accumulation of smoke and particulate matter, along with factories and other industrial sites also adding to the pollution collective. Along with these, certain businesses that may also rely on burning through fossil fuels or other unclean fuel sources go hand in hand with factories to raise the US AQI and PM2.5 count.
Whilst there are most certainly more prominent groups that are adversely affected by pollution exposure, it is of note that any level of air pollution at all, carries with it the possibility to cause unfavorable health effects amongst those who are exposed, including both young and healthy citizens or those with no prior health conditions. Clouds of smoke and fine particles may trigger sudden immune responses, cause health conditions related to the skin, lungs and heart (in more severe cases) to arise. Directing back to the question, those who are more at risk include groups such as younger children and babies, both of whom are highly vulnerable to the damaging side effects of chemical and particle exposure. Alterations to the nervous system can take place, due to many chemical compounds having this property when they accumulate in large enough quantities within the human body. This can result in delayed growth, as well as developmental problems and impaired mental capabilities, with youths who suffer from excessive pollution exposure for many years sometimes having these ailments, as well as sustaining damage to their lungs and other organ systems. This can once again have a domino effect of stunting development as well as leading to other lifelong health issues. Other groups that fall into the sensitive bracket are pregnant women, who much like the young children and baby’s demographic, can subject their unborn child to the negative side effects of pollution exposure due to certain hazardous chemicals being able to make their way to the child in the womb, causing instances of babies being born prematurely, with low birth weight, as well as increasing the rates of infant mortality. Elderly citizens in Uthai are also at risk, due to them being more prone to suffering from respiratory or cardiac ailments. Common chest or upper respiratory tract infections may develop into more life-threatening or terminal illnesses amongst the elderly, with other comorbidities such as sedentary lifestyle, pre-existing health conditions, obesity, or habits such as smoking lending itself to making these conditions extensively worse. Lastly, many people can exhibit a hypersensitive disposition towards certain ultrafine particles and other chemicals found in the pollution in Uthai. As such, all of these groups would do well to stay up to date on the pollution levels, both for the current day as well as the predictions for the coming week. Preventative measures such as wearing fine particle filtering masks and avoiding outdoor activities can aid considerably in reducing more serious side effects.
Examples of pollutants that are to be found in the atmosphere throughout Uthai include those that are involved in the calculation of air quality index, or US AQI (air quality index held to the standards of the United States, which is particularly stringent when it comes to air quality regulations), these being the most prevalent pollutants throughout Thailand as well as the rest of the world. Clouds of smoke, haze and other forms of gathered pollution most often contain varying concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone, or smog as it is more commonly referred to when it accumulates in large enough quantities on ground level. Whilst ozone is a vital component of the upper atmosphere, it can cause many ill health effects to occur to those who breathe it in. In larger cities such as Bangkok, these larger accumulations of smog may be visible in areas that see a high level of traffic, particularly when the sun’s rays are at their fiercest, along with other meteorological factors such as lack of wind or rain also contributing to this buildup. When exposed to solar radiation via the sun’s rays, the various oxides of nitrogen, gases and other chemical pollutants can undergo a reaction, becoming ozone. Due to these reasons, its buildup is often most noticeable in areas that have a heavier level of traffic, particularly near highways or motorways, or routes that have to contain rush hour traffic. Other pollutants that may be found in Uthai include carbon monoxide, along with the two main forms of particle pollution, PM10 and PM2.5. These are also included in the US AQI calculation, and it is important to note that PM2.5, or particulate matter that is 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter, is one of the most dangerous forms of air pollution that can be found in Uthai and throughout Thailand. Its extremely minute size enables it to bypass the bodies defense systems and barriers, travelling deep into the tissues of the lungs, either becoming lodged and staying there, causing health issues such as coughing or infections, or migrating into the bloodstream (made possible by its size allowing it to pass through the blood barrier and migrate into the circulatory system, whereby it can end up in many other areas of the body, which as one can imagine carries with it a large number of health risks). Other pollutants of note include black carbon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are both formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter, as well as from fossil fuels. Black carbon is a particularly dangerous form of PM2.5, having both adverse effects on human health as well as the environment, due to its ability to take in solar radiation and release it directly as heat into its surrounding. Some examples of VOCs (so named due to their nature of maintaining a gaseous state at lower temperatures, hence the volatile label) include chemical compounds such as xylene, methylene chloride, toluene, styrene, benzene (another highly carcinogenic pollutant along with black carbon) as well as formaldehyde. Besides being prevalent in areas that see combustion taking place, they are also common as household pollutants, being one of the main sources of indoor air pollution, emanating from a large variety of products such as paint, glue, varnishes (all of which can be smelt prominently when they have not yet dried properly), along with certain toiletry or personal products such as aerosol deodorants, scented candles and other similar items releasing VOCs. These are some examples of pollutants that may be found in the air throughout Uthai.