|2||Hang Dong, Chiang Mai|
|3||Chiang Rai, Chiang Rai|
|4||Si Chiang Mai, Nong Khai|
|5||Mae Sai, Chiang Rai|
|6||Phan, Chiang Rai|
|7||Ban Kha, Ratchaburi|
|8||Thawi Watthana, Bangkok|
|9||Bang Khon Thi, Samut Songkhram|
|10||Samut Songkhram, Samut Songkhram|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
|1||Hampton International School|
|2||Sansiri - Setthasiri Chaengwattana-Prachachuen 2|
|3||Sansiri - Siri Place Ratchaphruek 345|
|4||Denla British School|
|5||Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University|
|7||Bang Khayaeng, Mueang|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate||59 US AQI||PM2.5|
|Close your windows to avoid dirty outdoor air|
|Sensitive groups should reduce outdoor exercise|
|Tuesday, Nov 24|
Moderate 64 US AQI
|Wednesday, Nov 25|
Moderate 63 US AQI
|Thursday, Nov 26|
Moderate 56 US AQI
Moderate 59 US AQI
|Saturday, Nov 28|
Moderate 89 US AQI
|Sunday, Nov 29|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 114 US AQI
|Monday, Nov 30|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 140 US AQI
|Tuesday, Dec 1|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 142 US AQI
|Wednesday, Dec 2|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 115 US AQI
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Much like the rest of Thailand, Pak Kret has moderate levels of air pollution over the course of the year, with a few differences of note, the main one being the absence of months with massively elevated levels of pollution shown on the PM2.5 readings, according to data recorded over 2019 on the IQAir website.
From the available information, it is apparent that it manages to avoid the massive jumps in pollution and PM2.5 levels from the months of February through to April that are commonly found in many of the other cities and states, however despite being absent from this trend, it still manages to come in at a higher ranking of most polluted cities in Thailand ahead of Bangkok, coming in at 35th place out of the 68 recorded cities. In contrast, Bangkok finds its pollution levels recorded in 2019 at 22.8 µg/m³, putting it in 48th place.
Pak Kret had an average PM2.5 rating of 24.2 µg/m³, putting it into the ‘moderate’ grouping, which exceeds the World Health Organization’s (WHO) target of 0 to 10 µg/m³ by 14.2 marks, not overtly bad by any means but with definitive room for improvement.
Pak Kret is a city with a population of over 190,000 registered citizens, bringing it in at the 3rd most populated city in Thailand. It also sits just north over Bangkok, and as such with any city bordering on the country’s capital, many of its air pollution problems can be linked to both industrial and economic growth, as well as an increase in the number of citizens living there, as people who choose to work in Bangkok have the option to migrate out and live in adjacent cities, making their daily commute in and out of Bangkok. Its moderate rating makes its levels of air pollution and PM2.5 not of a hugely significant concern, although certain demographics of vulnerable people may find themselves wanting to stay aware of the air quality and take the appropriate action, although this is definitively less pertinent than other cities in Thailand and as such it is deserving of its moderate rating in a truer sense of the word.
The main causes of pollution in Pak Kret would be a variety of particulate matter found in exhaust fumes as well as industrial emissions. This fine particulate matter, otherwise known as PM2.5 or PM10 depending on its size, are the main causes of concern for the decline in air quality, not just in Pak Kret but in other cities all over Thailand. To give an example, the 3rd most polluted city in Thailand as of 2019, Pai, had a PM2.5 rating of 38.9µg/m³, putting it in the unhealthy for sensitive groups bracket, with air that would be full of pollutants and noxious chemicals such as Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Ozone (O3), making the poor air quality of Pai to be of particular concern for its citizens, an example of how higher levels of such pollutants can cause a decline in overall air quality.
Furthermore, the main causes of the PM2.5 and PM10 found in the air along with other pollution would be the release of smoke and fumes from automobiles, particularly older vehicles that use diesel as their fuel source. These older, outdated vehicles often with poor engine combustion are responsible for spewing out thick blankets of smoke and black carbon (BC) that can be observed carpeting the underpasses and roadsides of Bangkok and other populous cities in Thailand. Alongside this, the industrial sector would also release gases into the air that undergo chemical reactions when they come into contact with exhaust fumes, causing a rise in the levels of PM10, which can include smoke and also fine metal particles, to name but a few.
As more people migrate out of Bangkok to neighboring cities such as Pak Kret, there would also be an increase in roads and freeways, as well as cars and buses to transport people during their daily commute. Housing and condominiums would continue to sprout up, with more factories and businesses appearing to accommodate demand for a growing population. These are all the main causes of pollution that lead to a decline in air quality, as well as the smoke released from the burning of forest areas and crops by farmers in the provinces, although this does not seem to have as profound an effect on Pak Kret as it does on other cities, going by the 2019 data, although for sure it would have a continued presence that would contribute to a higher AQI reading and levels of haze in the air.
PM2.5 and PM10 found in poor quality air are now universally acknowledged to be extremely harmful to human health, due to the microscopic size of this particulate matter. The extremely small size enables it to, upon inhalation, find its way to the deepest corners of the lungs, and with PM2.5, even find its way into the bloodstream which can have disastrous consequences both long and short term on health.
The smoke from combustion of organic matter, as produced by slash and burn farming, can mix with the smoke emissions from vehicles and factories, creating a potently toxic cocktail of chemicals waiting to be inhaled in the form of smog that can blanket a city. The type of pollutants and chemicals to be found in this smog will be discussed in greater detail further on. Returning to the health effects, poor air quality and pollution can both exacerbate as well as cause a number of respiratory problems, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) being of chief concern, as various other conditions that fall under the COPD bracket include conditions such as chronic bronchitis, as well as asthma and emphysema.
It is akin to the constant passive smoking of cigarettes, with increased risk of a variety of heart diseases, respiratory problems and various forms of cancer (mainly of the lungs) presenting itself as possible outcomes of continuous breathing of polluted air. Despite this, with Pak Kret’s moderate rating of 24.2µg/m³ on the pm2.5 rating, and position of 658th most polluted city in the world, these conditions would not be overly prevalent amongst the population, with the exception of the previously mentioned at risk demographics, such as children, the elderly, and those with preexisting heart and lung conditions. This group of people should take action to prevent breathing an excess of pollution on particularly bad days, information which can be found out on the air quality maps available on the IQAir website as well as with real time updates on the AirVisual app.
The types of pollutants that can be found in the smoke and haze surrounding Pak Kret are numerous, with the majority of them coming from car exhaust fumes and factory emissions, and the rest being comprised of burnt organic material from the aforementioned setting fire to forest and farmland. The burning of this organic matter can produce a large amount of dangerous materials such as black carbon and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) which are both produced through the incomplete combustion of both organic matter as well as fossil fuels, or a combination of both.
When these combine with factory and car-based pollution, the formation of PM2.5 and PM10 occurs, containing but not limited to SO2, NO2, Ozone (O3) as well as particulate matter of lead and Carbon Monoxide (CO). Due to Pak Kret’s moderate rating, these pollutants would not be in abundance, yet they would still find themselves in the atmosphere, emphasizing the importance of reducing one’s exposure to them and other preventative measures, such as the wearing of higher quality masks, as available for purchase on the IQAir website.
The months that are shown to be most polluted in Pak Kret during the year of 2019 were November and December, with ratings that pushed them into the ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ bracket, with ratings of 35.5 and 47.1µg/m³ respectively, making December by far the most polluted month.
January also came in a relatively high rating of 35.4µg/m³, putting it at just 0.1µg/m³ below the cutoff point whereby it would leave the moderate bracket and enter into the ‘unhealthy for sensitive groups’ section.
Data sources 4