|2||Burabay, Soltustik Qazaqstan|
|5||Almaty, Almaty Qalasy|
|7||Shymkent, Ongtustik Qazaqstan|
|9||Ust-Kamenogorsk, East Kazakhstan|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
|1||Mambetova street 14|
|2||Nur-Sultan no.2: School No.3|
|5||Nur-Sultan no.9: Akhmet Baitursynuly|
|7||Nur-Sultan no.6: Almaty|
|8||Nur-Sultan no.8: State School #40|
|9||Astana BI Village|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy|| 172 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Astana is currently 19.2 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Sunday, Feb 5|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 133 US AQI
|Monday, Feb 6|
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 142 US AQI
|Tuesday, Feb 7|
Moderate 70 US AQI
Unhealthy 172 US AQI
|Thursday, Feb 9|
Good 18 US AQI
|Friday, Feb 10|
Good 13 US AQI
|Saturday, Feb 11|
Good 7 US AQI
|Sunday, Feb 12|
Good 9 US AQI
|Monday, Feb 13|
Good 14 US AQI
|Tuesday, Feb 14|
Good 15 US AQI
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Nur-Sultan was known as Akmola up to 1998 when the name was changed to Astana. It remained with this name until March 2019 when the president with that name retired. To honour him, the name of the capital city was changed. The city is situated in the northern area of Kazakhstan on the banks of the Ishim River. In 2020 it had an estimated population of over 1.1 million people. Even though it is the capital city, it is not the largest, that honour goes to the city of Almaty, which was the former capital between 1991 and 1997.
In early 2021, Nur-Sultan was experiencing “Moderate” quality air with a US AQI figure of 73. This is according to the recommended levels by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The concentrations of the measured pollutants are as follows: PM2.5 - 22.8 µg/m³, PM10 - 35.7 µg/m³, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) - 18.8 µg/m³, sulphur dioxide (SO2) - 10.9 µg/m³ and carbon monoxide (CO) - 509.4 µg/m³. With figures such as these, the advice is to close windows and doors to stop the ingress of polluted air and those of a sensitive disposition should avoid venturing outside if at all possible until the air quality improves.
When the air quality was monitored in early December 2020, it was found that in Nur-Sultan 973 cases which exceeded the permissible norms were registered. The city's air is most polluted in the areas of Akzhol (CHP), Koktal-1 and Shapagat municipal market.
The main sources of urban air pollutants are stationary types of thermal power stations, boilers, motor vehicle emissions and construction sites, production sites, cement works and asphalt plants.
According to previous years, the amount of pollutants from stationary sources in the city of Nur-Sultan showed a downward trend. In 2019, this trend will continue and the emission of pollutants into the air of the city's ecosystem is expected to decrease to 42 thousand tons. Emissions from mobile sources, on the other hand, will increase: in 2013 they exceeded 60.6 thousand tons, and in 2012 and 2011 amounted to 44.1 thousand and 46.2 thousand tons, respectively. A similar situation is observed in all major cities in Kazakhstan, where the contribution of vehicles to air pollution in recent years is 60 per cent or more, and in Almaty which equates to 80 per cent of total expenditures.
The share of mobile sources in Nur-Sultan exceeded 55 per cent, which is due to the steady growth in the number of cars, as well as the availability and use of older models of cars, the output of which exceeds the permissible level of environmental standards. In 2010 there were more than 120 thousand, in 2011; more than 160 thousand cars and in 2018 there were more than 300 thousand registered cars.
According to the Paris Agreement on climate change, the country must reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 45 per cent by 2030 and reach zero emissions by 2050.
In line with the agreement, public transport in Almaty and Nur-Sultan is being replaced by electric buses. The world is paying attention to such vehicles. After all, vehicles are one of the main culprits of air pollution. This type of transport is one of the most environmentally friendly devices. For example, there are 100 electric buses in the capital. They were purchased in 2019 for 17.94 billion tenge. Thus, the cost of one electric bus is 146.7 million tenge. Tenge is the currency of Kazakhstan and there are 420 Tenge to 1 $US.
Some of the vehicles were converted to gas. 165 or 66 per cent of minibuses with 250 carburettor engines run on gas, 120 cars in the city's utilities have also been converted to gas.
“Gazelle” minibuses and obsolete buses with carburettor engines have been replaced at all passenger enterprises throughout the city. "EURO-3" and "EURO-4" buses with diesel engines that meet European standards of toxic substances and have the lowest level of emissions were purchased.
Measures have been taken to remove large trucks and other heavy-duty vehicles from the central part of the city, a clear permitting system has been established, and periodic inspections of compliance with environmental requirements when using vehicles are being carried out.
A new environmental code has been introduced which will see heavy fines handed out to owners of polluting vehicles. If the offending owner is caught for a second time, his fine will be double the original one. This is by way of encouraging vehicle owners to take responsibility for their actions. Vehicles are tested on an annual basis so will eventually be discovered.
Researchers at Cornell University estimate that 40 per cent of the world's deaths are caused by air, water, and soil pollution. Toxic substances released into the atmosphere kill about three million people every year. The main causes of death from air pollution are cancer, congenital pathology and disorders of the immune system. Air pollutants cause various diseases, affecting human health in different ways. For example, breathing in air containing combustion products (liquefied petroleum gas from a diesel engine) increases the risk of coronary heart disease (even for a short time).
Industrial plants and cars emit black smoke and green-yellow sulphur dioxide, which increase the risk of premature death. Even relatively low concentrations of these substances in the atmosphere cause 4 to 22 per cent of deaths under the age of forty. Exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, as well as emissions from coal-burning enterprises, release into the air small particles that lead to increased blood clotting in the circulatory system. Polluted air is one of the main causes of high blood pressure. Atmospheric pollution affects the nervous system, which controls blood pressure levels, and causes it to change. In large cities, about five per cent of all hospitalisations are due to air pollution.
Large industrial cities can be covered with thick fog. This is a very serious type of air pollution because it is a thick fog with a mixture of smoke and gas residues or toxic gases and high concentrations of aerosols. This phenomenon is usually observed in windless, calm weather. This is a serious problem in large cities, as it is harmful to human health. It is especially dangerous for children and the elderly with weak bodies, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.