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Unhealthy for sensitive groups
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Unhealthy for sensitive groups|| 137 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Melaka is currently 10.1 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
|Saturday, Sep 30|
Unhealthy 153 AQI US
|Sunday, Oct 1|
Unhealthy 173 AQI US
|Monday, Oct 2|
Unhealthy 159 AQI US
Unhealthy for sensitive groups 137 AQI US
|Wednesday, Oct 4|
Moderate 70 AQI US
|Thursday, Oct 5|
Moderate 74 AQI US
|Friday, Oct 6|
Moderate 68 AQI US
|Saturday, Oct 7|
Moderate 71 AQI US
|Sunday, Oct 8|
Moderate 71 AQI US
|Monday, Oct 9|
Moderate 62 AQI US
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Malacca City is the capital city of the Malaysian state of the same name. In a census conducted in 2019, the estimated population was approximately 579,000 people.
In September 2021, Melaka was experiencing a period of “Moderate” air quality with a US AQI reading of 78. This United States Air Quality Index number is calculated using the levels of six of the most commonly occurring air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide and both sizes of particulate matter, which are PM2.5 and PM10. It can then be used as the metric when comparing air quality in other cities around the world. If data is unavailable for all 6 pollutants, a figure can still be calculated by using what figures there are. For Melaka, the only measurement taken was that of PM2.5 which was 25 µg/m³.
This level is two and a half times the recommended safe level of 10 µg/m³ as suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as being an acceptable level. Although no amount of air pollution is safe.
With air pollution at this level, the given advice is to stay indoors and close all doors and windows to prevent more dirty air entering the rooms. Those of a sensitive disposition should limit their time spent outside and should always wear a good quality face mask if doing so. For up-to-date information about air quality, there is an app available from AirVisual which is downloadable for all mobile devices.
Air quality is very volatile as it is subject to many external influencing factors such as meteorological and atmospheric changes.
However, looking back at the figures released by IQAir for 2020, the entire year returned figures from the “Moderate” category which need to be between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³ to qualify as such. The month with the best air quality was April with a figure of just 12.1 µg/m³. The dirtiest month was August when the figure was 23.1 µg/m³.
Historically, records were first kept in 2019 when the figure was 16.9 µg/m³, which would be “Moderate”. Last year the figure was 15.3 µg/m³, however, this reading may have been affected by the COVID-19 situation as many vehicles were no longer in daily use because the offices were closed, in an attempt to halt the spread of the virus. Many factories and non-essential production units were also required to close which removed their emissions from the atmosphere.
The main causes and effects of air pollution are always related to humans. Humans are the main and biggest cause of air pollution. Humans also feel the worst effects of air pollution.
Air pollution is one of the environmental damages, in the form of a decrease in air quality due to the entry of harmful elements into the air or the earth's atmosphere. Hazardous elements that enter the atmosphere can be in the form of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter, lead (Pb), and carbon dioxide (CO2). These elements can also be referred to as pollutants or types of air pollutants.
The entry of pollutants into the atmosphere that causes air pollution can be caused by two factors, namely natural factors and human factors. The cause of air pollution from natural factors, for example, is volcanic activity that emits volcanic ash and gases, forest fires, and the activities of microorganisms. Pollutants produced are usually in the form of smoke, dust, and gases.
The second cause of air pollution is the human factor with all its activities. Various human activities that can produce pollutants include:
The use of unleaded gasoline can reduce the lead content in vehicle smoke emissions. This measure can reduce the problem of air pollution, especially in large cities. Smoke filters and catalytic converters reduce the emission of black smoke by public transport such as buses and taxis that use diesel as a fuel, the use of smoke filters is very welcome. With this, the smoke released has been filtered and is smoke that does not pollute the air. The use of alternative fuels such as electricity and solar energy will help. In order to reduce air pollution due to black smoke emissions from motor vehicles (buses, trucks, taxis, etc.), the use of environmentally friendly alternative fuels is strongly encouraged.
To protect the environment and reduce air pollution, cycling campaigns can be launched and to address traffic congestion, especially during peak hours, the government can encourage car-sharing campaigns.
Dust, vehicle smoke or even fine powder from open burning is detrimental to health. The individuals most severely affected by the effects of this air pollution are those with health problems related to the respiratory system, especially asthmatics. In addition to asthma patients, those with skin allergies and shortness of breath also experience more serious attacks.
Those suffering from illnesses such as coughs, colds, asthma, eye pain, heart disease or chronic lung disease should seek immediate treatment if the disease worsens.
Individual responses to air pollution vary depending on the type of agent exposed, the level of exposure and health conditions, and a person’s genetic factors. Air pollutants can cause a variety of effects on health, from biochemical and physiological changes to difficulty breathing, coughing, and respiratory and heart disorders. If left untreated, the condition can result in a person being detained in hospital or may result in early death.
Air quality can affect health quality as it has an impact on the health of the lungs and the entire respiratory system. In addition to oxygen, the air contains other substances such as pollutants, which can be harmful to health. Inhalation of these contaminants may adversely affect the lungs and other organs of the body. The respiratory system is very sensitive to air pollution because it consists of a mucous membrane that covers its inner surface. The lungs are designed to absorb large amounts of air in close contact with the bloodstream and facilitate oxygen transport.