카자흐스탄의 공기질

카자흐스탄의 공기질 지수(AQI)와 PM2.5 공해도

최종 업데이트 (현지 시간)

실시간 AQI 도시별 랭킹

실시간 카자흐스탄
의 공해가 가장 심각한 도시 랭킹

#city미국 AQI
1 Burunday, Almaty Oblysy

374

2 외스케멘, East Kazakhstan

296

3 Pervomayka, Almaty Oblysy

246

4 Otegen Batyra, Almaty Oblysy

197

5 아티라우, Atyrau

193

6 Karagandy, Karaganda

168

7 Esik, Almaty Oblysy

163

8 Burabay, Soltustik Qazaqstan

159

9 알마티, Almaty Qalasy

130

10 타라즈, Zhambyl

92

(현지 시간)

전 세계 AQI 랭킹 보기

공기질 기여자 소스

데이터 제공자

기여자

4

데이터 소스

6

AirKaz Organisation의 프로필 로고Kazhydromet의 프로필 로고U.S. Department of State의 프로필 로고6 익명의 공헌자의 프로필 로고AirKaz Organisation의 프로필 로고Kazhydromet의 프로필 로고

자신만의 모니터를 장착하여 공기질을 스스로 측정하고 관련 활동에 참여하세요.

기여자 되기
기여자 및 데이터 소스에 관하여 좀 더 자세히 알아보세요

실시간 AQI 도시별 랭킹

실시간 카자흐스탄
의 공기가 가장 깨끗한 도시 랭킹

#city미국 AQI
1 Beyneu, Mangghystau

0

2 Komsomolets, Qostanay

0

3 Georgiyevka, Zhambyl

1

4 Kentau, Ongtustik Qazaqstan

1

5 Ridder, East Kazakhstan

1

6 Soran, Karaganda

1

7 Zyryanovsk, East Kazakhstan

1

8 Fedorovka, Batys Qazaqstan

2

9 Balqash, Karaganda

3

10 에키바스투즈, Pavlodar

3

(현지 시간)

전 세계 AQI 랭킹 보기
좋음
보통
민감한 사람에서 나쁨
나쁨
매우 나쁨
위험
전체 화면에서 지도를 열려면 직사각형 모양을 클릭
지도를 확대하려면 플러스 아이콘을 클릭
지도를 축소하려면 마이너스 아이콘을 클릭

개요

카자흐스탄의 공해는 어느 정도인가요?

South Korea의 국기

2019 공기질 평균

AQI 레벨을 나타내는 인간 얼굴

보통

2019 평균 미국 AQI

75

!

PM2.5

x2

PM2.5 농도 2019에 카자흐스탄(이)가 2배 상승하였습니다 WHO 노출 권고

2019 카자흐스탄에서 공기가 가장 깨끗한 도시Nur-Sultan, Nur-Sultan

75

2019 카자흐스탄에서 공해가 가장 심각한 도시Nur-Sultan, Nur-Sultan

75

2019 aqi 국가 랭킹

공해와 관련하여 카자흐스탄의 글로벌 순위는?

29/ 98 {year]년 동안 순위에 오른 국가

2019에 어떤 국가의 공기질이 가장 나빴나요?

#국가인구평균 미국 AQI
1South Korea의 국기방글라데시166'368'149

165

2South Korea의 국기파키스탄200'813'818

156

3South Korea의 국기몽골3'121'772

154

4South Korea의 국기아프가니스탄36'373'176

153

5South Korea의 국기인도1'354'051'854

152

6South Korea의 국기인도네시아266'794'980

141

7South Korea의 국기바레인1'566'993

129

8South Korea의 국기네팔29'624'035

123

9South Korea의 국기우즈베키스탄32'364'996

115

10South Korea의 국기이라크39'127'900

111

29South Korea의 국기카자흐스탄18'403'860

75

세부 정보 보기

공해로부터 가장 좋은 보호 방법은?

카자흐스탄에서 공해에 대한 노출을 줄이세요

What is the air quality forecast for Kazakhstan?

Kazakhstan is officially known as the Republic of Kazakhstan and is a country which is situated for the larger portion in Central Asia with a very small part in Eastern Europe. It is 100 per cent land-locked and has an overall population of 18.3 million people. Since 2019, the capital city is known as Nur-Sultan in honour of the departing president. Before that, it was called Astana. In 2019 it held the world ranking as the 29th dirtiest city in the world, out of a possible 98. A US AQI figure of 75 was recorded, which classifies it as “Moderate”, and the PM2.5 concentration was twice the recommended limit by the World Health Organisation (WHO). With figures such as these, the advice is to close doors and windows to prevent the ingress of dirty air into the home. Those people of a sensitive disposition should avoid venturing outside until the air quality improves. This information can readily be found on the website IQAir.com.

What is the history of air pollution in Kazakhstan?

The presence of new physical, chemical and biological substances in a particular environment that are not specific to that area, or when these substances are above the natural long-term average level, is called pollution. Atmospheric pollution can occur in natural (volcanic eruptions, forest fires, dust storms, landslides) and anthropogenic (industrial, thermal, agricultural) conditions.

Natural air pollution is caused by volcanic eruptions (there are several thousand volcanoes on Earth, more than 500 of which are active), rock erosion, dust storms, forest fires (during lightning), sea salt rising in the wind and drying of water droplets in the air. Among the sources of dust pollution of the lower atmosphere are the dessert and other arid steppes. In addition to converting atmospheric dust into water vapour, it directly absorbs solar radiation and protects living organisms from sunlight. The biological decomposition of substances results in the release of large amounts of hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and dioxide, etc. and their release into the atmosphere. Natural disasters make a significant contribution to air pollution. For example, an average of 30 to 150 million tons of gas and 30 to 300 million tons of finely dispersed ash are released into the atmosphere each year as a result of volcanic eruptions.

Airports emit more pollutants during landings and take-offs. For example, the amount of pollutants emitted during the flight of a Boeing plane is equal to the number of pollutants emitted from 6850 Volkswagen cars that were running at the same time.

What are the main causes of air pollution in Kazakhstan?

The main sources of air pollution in industrialised countries are cars, other modes of transport and production facilities. According to a study, 25.5 billion tons of anthropogenic pollutants enter the atmosphere each year; tons of carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons (freons), organic compounds of hydrocarbons and lead, as well as carcinogens that cause cancer.

Anthropogenic (artificial) sources of air pollution include industrial manufacturing, transportation, thermal power, residential heating systems and agriculture. Only industrial enterprises can be divided into the following main types of pollution: raw materials, materials, equipment, fuel, electricity, water and waste. Emissions into the atmosphere are usually gas, steam and airborne dust. The chemical composition of air pollutants depends on the type of fuel and energy resources and raw materials used in production and the technology of their processing. Man-made emissions contain several thousand compounds. However, the largest amount of them is solid particles of dust, smoke and soot, and gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, phosphorus compounds, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, chlorine and hydrogen fluoride.

Each car absorbs 4 tons of air a year and emits 800 kg of carbon monoxide, 40 kg of nitrogen oxides and about 200 kg of various hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. Exhaust gases from cars are mixtures of about 200 substances. They are fully and partially burned fuel products known as hydrocarbons. A large amount of these is released into the environment when a vehicle engine is in speeding and idling in a traffic jam. In this case, the fuel does not burn completely, and dirty air is released 10 times more than under normal running conditions. Under normal running conditions, the exhaust gas from the engine contains carbon dioxide and about 200 other substances.

Carbon dioxide is naturally heavier than air, therefore a baby in a pushchair is lower to the ground that the mother who is pushing it and will therefore swallow more.

What can be done to improve air quality in Kazakhstan?

Reducing the negative impact of vehicles on the environment is an important condition for building a sustainable society. Therefore, at present, models of zero-emission cars are being developed, gasoline is being replaced by liquefied gas, and instead of gasoline, animal feed (beet, corn) vegetable oils are being used.

It has been suggested that the government should take the following systematic measures to improve the current environmental situation, including the prevention of high levels of air pollution: the development of a summary of the maximum permissible emissions and environmental quality targets for the impact of pollutants from industrial areas on the region or nearby settlements. This should run simultaneously with the development of a comprehensive action plan aimed at reducing emissions of toxic substances into the atmosphere in order to improve the environmental situation in the regions. Systematic measures to monitor the quality of the atmosphere and its impact on the health of the population living in the sanitary protection zone of industrial enterprises also need to be introduced.

At the same time, it is necessary for industrial enterprises to actively reduce the number of harmful substances emitted into the air in adverse metrological conditions and to strengthen control over the level of vehicle emissions and toxicity. There are currently a number of preventive measures to improve air quality, such as banning heavy trucks from entering the city, preventing the concentration of several buses on the same route, the use of control devices that trap exhaust gases of gasoline-powered vehicles. In addition, all cars, trucks and public transport are being converted to gas. To do this, it is necessary to close gasoline stations inside and outside the city and install gas (LPG) stations in their place.

From a hygienic point of view, the use of gas is very efficient, because it does not pollute the air and does not cause economic losses in its use, it is very cheap. In addition, in Almaty, mainly the subway, trolleybuses and trams are widely used. Once the metro in the city is complete, the use of cars in Almaty would be significantly reduced. Millions of tons of coal are burned, annually and it is very often Ekibastuz coal which is extremely low quality and produces a huge amount of ash. Some of this gas escapes in the smoke and is emitted into the atmosphere. This coal could possibly be treated so that it produces less smoke and ash, but that would increase the price and would, therefore, become unpopular. To save money, residents would find an alternative fuel.

Which city in Kazakhstan has some of the highest levels of air pollution?

In 2017 in the major cities of the country registered 990 cases of high air pollution and 98 cases of extreme pollution, i.e. the most dangerous type. In particular, 357 cases of high air pollution and 75 cases of very high pollution, 419 cases of high pollution and 18 cases of very high pollution were registered in Atyrau alone. In Almaty, 20 per cent of air pollution is produced by the private sector and thermal power systems, and 80 per cent comes from vehicles. The amount of unburned hydrocarbons in the environment and the products of their incomplete combustion is much higher in gasoline-powered cars than in diesel cars. But diesel-powered cars produce more soot or black carbon.

Almaty, which has the highest level of air pollution in Kazakhstan, is now one of the 25 most polluted cities in the world. Last year, the level of air pollution in Almaty was 14.3, this year the figure is 13.5. According to experts, this is possible due to the comprehensive program to reduce environmental pollution in Almaty.

Despite the lack of large enterprises and factories that pollute the air together with the favourable topographic conditions, unfortunately, the city of Astana (Nur-Sultan) is also included in the category of cities with high levels of air pollution. At the beginning of 2021, some areas of the city were recorded as having hazardous levels of air pollution with a US AQI reading of 306. Other high readings were 192 and 168. However, three ground-monitoring stations reported lower levels with figures of 48, 41 and 11. Do a lot depends on the area of the city as to how polluted the air is.

Does the level of air pollution vary throughout the year in Kazakhstan?

According to officials in Nur-Sultan 3.8 million tons of coal will be burnt in one winter, and the private sector will burn 500 thousand tons of coal. 4.5 million tons of coal will be used to heat the capital. As a result, 40 thousand tons of harmful waste will be released into the atmosphere. The “heating season” usually finishes around the third week in April and already the level of PM2.5 is decreasing. This trend continues until mid-October when the weather begins to turn cold and the next “heating season” begins.

What are the effects on health by breathing Kazakhstan’s poor quality air?

Polluted air is the largest environmental threat to human health in the world. Although there are no large industrial facilities in the region, Almaty ranks first in the country in terms of respiratory, endocrine system diseases, blood diseases, cancer and bronchial asthma. During the analysis of the air in the city, more than a hundred volatile organic compounds known as VOCs were identified. Most of them are carcinogens. VOCs play a key role in creating the ozone layer near the earth's surface, which poisons the lungs of urban plants and living things. This is often called ground-level ozone.

Finely dispersed dust (PM2.5) is not radiation and does not kill immediately, but accumulates in the body. Such dust causes cardiovascular disease, chronic bronchitis and is carcinogenic. It can also be a major cause of premature death. It is so small that it easily overcomes the body's natural barriers and immediately enters the lungs. This dust is very difficult to remove from the body, but it easily disrupts the normal functioning.

Particulate matter is possibly the worst type of pollution as it drastically affects the human body. It is known to increase outbreaks of asthma, heart and lung disease. Hospital admissions and emergency room visits for respiratory problems increase when there is a high concentration of PM2.5 in the air. Decreased lung function that can be experienced as shortness of breath.

Ozone is a strong irritant that can limit the airways, forcing the respiratory system to work harder to provide oxygen. It can also aggravate respiratory diseases such as emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma. Deep parts of the lungs can become irrevocably damaged, even after symptoms such as a cough or sore throat decline. Resistance to infection becomes more serious and it leads to feeling fatigued more often. Minor effects can include noisy breathing, chest pains, dry throat, headaches and nausea.

Carbon monoxide replaces oxygen in red blood cells. People with heart disease are more likely to develop chest pain when exposed to low levels of carbon monoxide. Exposure to high levels of it can decrease reflexes and cause confusion and drowsiness. In enclosed spaces such as a garage, it can soon cause death by suffocation because of the high levels of concentration.

Did Covid 19 have any effect on the air quality in Kazakhstan?

According to the World Health Organisation, nine out of ten people in the world breathe polluted air. The organisation estimates that air pollution kills seven million people each year. Restrictive measures imposed in connection with the coronavirus pandemic in various cities around the world have helped to reduce air fog and significantly improve air quality. American and European researchers have found a link between air quality and the COVID-19 virus.

카자흐스탄의 공기질 데이터 소스

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