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|2||Maglaj, Federation of B&H|
|3||Tuzla, Federation of B&H|
|6||Banja Luka, Srpska|
|10||Sarajevo, Federation of B&H|
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
(local time)SEE WORLD AQI RANKING
live AQI index
|Air pollution level||Air quality index||Main pollutant|
|Moderate|| 75 US AQI||PM2.5|
PM2.5 concentration in Tuzla is currently 4.7 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value
| Sensitive groups should wear a mask outdoors|
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| Sensitive groups should run an air purifier|
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| Close your windows to avoid dirty outdoor air|
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| Sensitive groups should reduce outdoor exercise|
|Friday, Jun 2|
Moderate 93 US AQI
|Saturday, Jun 3|
Moderate 75 US AQI
|Sunday, Jun 4|
Moderate 56 US AQI
Moderate 75 US AQI
|Tuesday, Jun 6|
Moderate 76 US AQI
|Wednesday, Jun 7|
Moderate 61 US AQI
|Thursday, Jun 8|
Moderate 68 US AQI
|Friday, Jun 9|
Moderate 71 US AQI
|Saturday, Jun 10|
Moderate 67 US AQI
|Sunday, Jun 11|
Moderate 55 US AQI
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Tuzla is the third-largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative centre of Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A census which was conducted in 2013 estimated the population to be approximately 111,000 people, though this has probably increased by now.
Towards the middle of 2021, Tuzla was going through a period of “Moderate” air quality with a US AQI figure of 58. This United States Air Quality Index number is used internationally and recognised by the World Health Organisation” (WHO). It can and is used when comparing the air quality in different parts of the world because it uses the same metrics in all instances.
There are usually six main pollutants that are taken into consideration when assessing air quality. Sometimes numbers for all six are not available so the figure has to be calculated by using what data is available. In the case of Tuzla, the only recording was for PM2.5 which was 12.1 µg/m³.
When the level of air pollution reached this height, the advice would be to stay indoors as much as possible, closing doors and windows to prevent the ingress of more polluted air. Those of a sensitive nature should avoid venturing outside as much as possible.
Air pollution is very volatile as it can easily be affected by many variables such as wind speed and direction and the amount and strength of sunlight, amongst others.
Looking back at the figures published for 2020 by the Swiss air monitoring company, IQAir Tuzla hit the WHO target figure in June with a reading of 9.8 µg/m³. The months of April and May returned a “Moderate” level of air quality with figures between 12.1 and 35.4 µg/m³. This was again the case for July until the end of September. For February and March and October and November the air quality degenerated into the “Unhealthy for sensitive groups” classification with figures between 35.5 and 55.4 µg/m³. December and January saw a further decline into the “Unhealthy” bracket with figures between 55.5 and 150.4 µg/m³.
Records for air quality were first kept in 2018 when the average annual figure was 43.1 µg/m³. A marked improvement was seen the following year with the mean figure of 35.3 µg/m³. Another improvement was noted last year when the figure was seen to be 32.1 µg/m³. However, this may not be a truly accurate reading because of the restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many vehicles were no longer used as the drivers were furloughed not required to commute to and from work. There were also many factories and other non-essential production units which were temporarily closed in an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus.
Air pollution in Tuzla, as the second most polluted city in Europe, is one of the biggest problems affecting a large number of citizens, and special damage is inflicted on vulnerable groups such as children, pregnant women, the chronically ill and the elderly. In addition to industry and traffic, large sources of air pollution are individual combustion plants, which use fossil fuels for heating, mainly coal with a high percentage of sulphur. An additional problem is that most of these individual fireboxes, due to the lack of thermal insulation, use large amounts of energy.
The industrial way of life is the source of most environmental pollution. Toxic chemicals are produced when coal is burnt to produce electricity and when we travel in petrol or diesel-fuelled vehicles. The chemical, mining and agricultural industries also produce air pollution as well as landfills. In Skopje, about 30 per cent of the city's poor air quality comes from wood-burning stoves that residents are forced to use because they are cheaper than central heating. Although indoor pollution rates have remained largely the same in recent years, outdoor pollution is growing rapidly as industries expand and more people use cars.
Particulate pollution is a mixture of solids and droplets. Some particles are emitted directly, others are formed when pollution emitted from different sources reacts with each other in the atmosphere. The level of particulate matter pollution can be very unhealthy and even dangerous during pollution episodes. The level of particulate matter pollution can be elevated even indoors, especially when the level of external pollution is high.
Floating particles appear in a wide range of sizes. Those less than 10 micrometres in diameter (several times smaller than the width of one hair of human hair) are so small that they can penetrate the lungs and further into the bloodstream and internal organs where they can cause serious health problems.
The smallest particles (2.5 micrometres in diameter and smaller) are called "fine". They are so tiny that they can only be detected with a microscope. The main sources of fine particles are motor vehicles, thermal power plants, burning wood and coal in individual furnaces, forest fires, burning of agricultural waste, some industrial processes and many other combustion processes.
Particles with a diameter of between 2.5 and 10 micrometres are called "coarse". Large floating particles are formed by crushing and grinding operations, as well as by the raising of dust on the road by motor vehicles.
In order to reduce particulate matter emissions, it is necessary to apply the experience of a number of European cities (London, Dublin, etc.) that have successfully solved the problem of air pollution through the introduction of Controlled Smoke Emission Zones, which would allow burning only certified fuels in certified furnaces, with rigorous control of by inspections.
The prohibition of solid fuel heating plants in cities that have the possibility of gas supply (Sarajevo) or that have district heating infrastructure (Tuzla, Lukavac).
The restriction of vehicle traffic in susceptible cities in accordance with environmental standards met by their engines through the introduction of mandatory colour labels to be issued when registering a motor vehicle, which would significantly facilitate the application of permanent or occasional traffic restrictions for more polluting vehicles.
Floating particles smaller than 10 micrometres (PM10) are inhaled together with air and penetrate deeply into the lungs. In this way, many chemicals dangerous to human health are transmitted to our internal organs, causing a wide range of diseases, some of which end in death, including cancer (especially lung cancer), stroke and damage to babies while they are still in the womb. There is a strong link between PM10 pollution and most respiratory diseases, heart disease and even increased mortality.
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